Policy instruments The main monetary policy instruments available to central banks are open market operation, bank reserve requirement, interest-rate policy, re-lending and re-discount (including using the term repurchase market), and credit policy (often coordinated with trade policy).
Reserves are just like savings help to fall back upon from difficult or contingent situations.
State Bank gives money to commercial banks in the time of crises to avoid panic life situations in the markets.
Bank it self has no money, for this there are some legislations required, that are issued in the form of Prudential regulations by State Bank for determining credit policy.
Capital Adequacy While capital adequacy is important, it is defined and regulated by the Bank for International Settlements, and central banks in practice generally do not apply stricter rules.
To enable open market operations, a central bank must hold foreign exchange reserves.
It will often have some influence over any official or mandated exchange rates: Some exchange rates are managed, some are market based (free float) and many are somewhere in between ("managed float" or "dirty float").
Open Market Operations Through open market operations, a central bank influences the money supply in an economy directly. Each time it buys securities, exchanging money for the security, it raises the money supply.
Open Market Operations Conversely, selling of securities lowers the money supply. Buying of securities thus amounts to printing new money while lowering supply of the specific security.
Open Market Operations Temporary lending of money for collateral securities ("Reverse Operations" or "repurchase operations", otherwise known as the "repo" market). These operations are carried out on a regular basis, where fixed maturity loans (of 1 week and 1 month for the ECB) are auctioned off.
Buying or selling securities ("Direct Operations") Foreign exchange operations such as forex swaps.
Forex Swap In finance, a forex swap is an over- the-counter short term interest rate derivative instrument. In emerging money markets, forex swaps are usually the first derivative instrument to be traded, ahead of forward rate agreements.
Central Banks use forex swaps to hedge their existing forex exposures by swapping temporary surplus funds in one currency into another currency for better use of liquidity. Doing so protects against adverse movements in the forex rate, but favorable moves are renounced.
Structure of Forex swap A Forex swap consist of two types: 1.A spot foreign exchange transaction. 2.A forward foreign exchange transaction.
Speculations According to previous 3,4 and 6 months currency rates, determine the value of Basket Currency rates.
Interest Rate Swap Interest Rate Swap is a derivative in which one party exchanges a stream of interest payments for another party stream of cash flows.
Interest Rate Swap Contd.. Interest Rate Swaps can be used by hedgers to manage their fixed or floating assets and liabilities. They can also be used by speculators to replicate unfunded bond exposure to profit from changes in interest rates.
Credit risk in the swap comes into play if the swap is in the money or not, if one of the parties is in the money than that party faces credit risk of possible default by another party.
Types of Interest Rate Swaps 1.Fixed for floating rate swap same currencies. 2.Fixed for floating rate swap different currencies. 3.Floating for floating rate swap same currencies. 4.Fixed for fixed rate swap different currencies. 5.Floating for floating rate swap different currencies.
Fixed rates: Not changed Floating rates: Changed according to market situations.
Currency Swap Currency Swap is foreign exchange agreement between two parties to exchange a given amount of one currency for another and after a specified period of time to give back the original amount swap.
Currency Swap Currency Swaps are often combine with interest rate swaps e.g. one company would seek to swap a cash flow for the fixed rate debt denominated in US Dollars for a floating rate debt denominated in Euro.
Currency Swap This is especially common in Europe where companies shop for the cheapest debt regardless of its denomination and then seek to exchange it for the debt in desired currency.
Capital Requirement All banks are required to hold a certain percentage of their assets as capital. A rate which may be established by the Central bank or banking supervisor.
Reserve Requirement Another significant power that Central bank hold is the ability to establish reserve requirement for other banks. The other requirement is that a percentage of liability is being held as cash or deposited with the Central bank or other agency, limits are set on the money supply.
Exchange Rate Accordingly there are certain exchange requirements to influence the money supply,some Central Banks may require that some or all foreign exchange receipts generally from exports be exchanged for the local currency,the rate that is used to purchase local currency may be market based or arbitrarily set by bank.
RECAP Role of Central Bank: Central bank plays a critical role in every transaction, business and daily activities, whether it is Economic activity or Individual activity (saving schemes or return matters) Central banks monitors the purchase and repurchase so that loss would not be there in the exchange rates.