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Inflation and Unemployment

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Presentation on theme: "Inflation and Unemployment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Inflation and Unemployment
A2 Economics

2 Content The causes and consequences of unemployment
The natural rate of unemployment hypothesis The phillips curve The causes and consequences of inflation

3 Unemployment There are a number of types of unemployment:
Structural unemployment Cyclical unemployment Frictional unemployment Structural unemployment occurs when the economy changes and industries die out Training is needed to give the unemployed workers new skills

4 Unemployment Cyclical unemployment is caused by the business cycle
Frictional unemployment is caused when people are temporarily out of work as they are moving jobs

5 Unemployment and PPF Unemployment means that scarce economic resources are being wasted reducing the long run potential of the economy Where there are high levels of unemployment an economy will be operating inside the perimeters of its PPF

6 Unemployment and AD / AS
As Aggregate demand increases unemployment will decrease Supply side policies can be used to increase aggregate supply in the economy and thereby reduce the level of unemployment However if the growth in the level of aggregate demand is less than the underlying trend growth in output unemployment is likely to occur

7 Causes and Consequences of Unemployment
Unemployment is caused by demand and supply side factors On the demand side if the demand curve shifts inwards unemployment will rise Supply side factors such as an excess of supply of workers also means unemployment will increase

8 Policies that increase labour market flexibility
A number of policies can be implemented to increase market flexibility and reduce unemployment Policies can be implemented on the supply side and the demand side by the government

9 Supply side policies Supply side policies include:
Reducing the occupational mobility of labour – this can be through providing training for the unemployed, increasing the availability and quality of education and providing incentives for people to work

10 Demand side policies Employment subsidies can be used by the government to encourage businesses to give jobs to the long term unemployed

11 Effects of Unemployment
On an individual level unemployment reduces the level of income that an individual earns As their income has been reduced consumption also reduces as they pay for necessities rather than luxuries Goods that are income elastic will be consumed less Quality of life will be reduced for the unemployed worker Workers may become discouraged and give up searching for jobs becoming part of the long term structural unemployment in the UK

12 Effects of Unemployment
Unemployment can have significance effects on the performance of the economy as a whole The effects are most marked due to long terms unemployment If there is unemployment in the economy resources are not being used effectively and the economy will be operating below any points on the PPF curve

13 Economic effects of unemployment
If unemployment rates are rising their will be a negative impact on economic growth potential Consumption is likely to fall as consumers will have had a decrease in income levels Government spending will increase as the government will be responsible for benefit payments Taxation levels will decrease as less people are in work and therefore paying taxes

14 Natural Rate of Unemployment Hypothesis
The natural rate of unemployment recognizes that there will always be some level of unemployment in an economy At the natural rate all unemployment will be voluntary This is the employment rate when the economy is operating at full employment

15 Determinants of the natural rate
The natural rate is determined by the interaction of the demand for labour and the supply of labour At the equilibrium wage rate all people who want a job can get a job However at this wage rate their will be some people who choose not to work

16 Determinants of the natural rate
The natural rate of unemployment is determined by: Value of welfare benefits Trade union power Taxation system Migration of labour Social factors

17 Natural rate of unemployment and policy
If governments want to reduce the natural rate of unemployment they need to concentrate on supply side policies If the benefits system is relatively high in a country it will cause less people to want to work

18 The Phillips Curve Short run phillips curve is curve shaped
The long run phillips curve the curve is vertical At this rate the where unemployment is at its natural rate inflation is stable In the UK since 1997 there has been low inflation and low unemployment

19 Phillips Curve

20 Inflation Inflation- The rise in the general level of prices
In the long term, inflation erodes consumer purchasing power. That means that accumulated wealth buys less and less, with the passage of time. Where there is high inflation it is difficult for businesses to plan for the future as there is uncertainty regarding the cost of raw materials

21 The causes of inflation
inflation results when the macro economy has too much demand for available production. These alternatives fall under two general categories: Demand-Pull Inflation: This inflation occurs when household, business, government, and foreign industries collectively try to purchase more output than the economy is capable of producing. In effect, the demand side of the aggregate market is "pulling" the price level higher. Cost-Push Inflation: Cost-push inflation is inflation attributable to decreases in supply, primarily due to increases in production cost

22 Cost Push Inflation As costs rise it causes the aggregate supply curve to shift onwards so less is supplied at each price level Each time the aggregate supply curve shifts inwards the price rises causing inflation

23 Demand pull inflation As aggregate demand increases then the general price level rises When total demand exceeds total supply demand pull inflation occurs If the economy is close to full capacity the effects of demand pull inflation will be greater

24 Preventing inflation One of the best ways to prevent inflation is through stock, variable annuities, and variable universal life insurance. These alternatives provide the potential for returns that exceed inflation over the long term. Central banks place high interest rates using unemployment and the decline of production to prevent price increases.

25 Summary There are three main types of unemployment:
Structural Cyclical Frictional Unemployment means that an economy cant operate on its ppf As AD increases unemployment decreases The natural rate of unemployment recognises there will always be some level of unemployment in the economy The Phillips curve shows an inverse relationship between unemployment and inflation Inflation is a rise in the general level of prices There are two causes of inflation: Cost push Demand pull

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