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Presentation on theme: "JOB ANALYSIS AND HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING"— Presentation transcript:


2 Chapter Objectives Describe why job analysis is a basic human resource tool. Explain the reasons for conducting job analysis. Describe the types of information required for job analysis. Describe the various job analysis methods.

3 Chapter Objectives (Continued)
Describe some human resource forecasting techniques. Define requirements and availability forecasts. Identify what a firm can do when either a surplus or a shortage of workers exists. Describe job design.

4 Job Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Tool

5 Job Analysis, Job and Position
Job analysis - Systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization Job - Consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organization to achieve its goals Position - Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person

6 Questions Job Analysis Should Answer
What physical and mental tasks does the worker accomplish? When does the job have to be completed? Where is the job to be accomplished? How does the worker do the job? Why is the job done? What qualifications are needed to perform the job?

7 When Job Analysis Is Performed
When the organization is founded When new jobs are created When jobs are changed significantly as a result of new technologies, methods, procedures, or systems

8 Job Descriptions/Specifications
Job description - A document that provides information regarding the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of the job Job specification - Minimum acceptable qualifications that a person should possess in order to perform a particular job

9 Reasons For Conducting Job Analysis
Staffing Training and Development Compensation and Benefits Safety and Health Employee and Labor Relations

10 Job Analysis for Teams Historically, companies established permanent jobs and filled these jobs with people who best fit the job description In some firms today, people are being hired and paid on a project basis Today whenever someone asks "What is your job description?" the reply might well be "Whatever."

11 Types of Job Analysis Information
Work activities Worker-oriented activities Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used Job-related tangibles and intangibles Work performance Job content Personal requirements for the job

12 Job Analysis Methods Questionnaires Observation Interviews
Employee recording Combination of methods

13 Conducting Job Analysis
Interested in gathering data regarding what is involved in performing a particular job People who participate in job analysis

14 People Who Participate in Job Analysis Should Include (at a minimum)
Employee Employee’s immediate supervisor Job analyst Consultants

15 Items Typically Included in Job Descriptions
Major duties performed Percentage of time devoted to each duty Performance standards to be achieved Working conditions and possible hazards Number of employees performing the job and who they report to The machines and equipment used on the job

16 Job Description Job Identification Date of the Job Analysis
Job Summary Duties Performed Job Specification

17 Educational Requirements
Job Specification Minimum Acceptable Qualifications: Educational Requirements Experience Personality Traits Physical Abilities

18 The Expanded Job Description
Jobs are changing Jobs are getting bigger Jobs are getting more complex Changes the way virtually every HR function is performed

19 Timeliness of Job Analysis
Need for accurate job analysis is important Must be kept relevant

20 Other Job Analysis Methods
Functional Job Analysis Position Analysis Questionnaire Management Position Description Questionnaire Guidelines-Oriented Job Analysis Descriptions Now

21 Strategic Planning The process by which top management determines overall organizational purposes and objectives and how they are to be achieved

22 Human Resource Planning
The process of systematically reviewing HR requirements to ensure that the required number of employees, with the required skills, are available when they are needed

23 Human Resource Planning
Human Resource Planning Process External Environment Internal Environment Strategic Planning Human Resource Planning Forecasting Human Resource Requirements Comparing Requirements and Availability Forecasting Human Resource Availability Demand = Supply Surplus of Workers Shortage of Workers Restricted Hiring, Reduced Hours, Early Retirement, Layoff, Downsizing Recruitment No Action Selection

24 HR Forecasting Techniques
Zero-based forecasting Bottom-up approach Use mathematical models Simulation

25 Forecasting HR Requirements
Estimate of numbers and kinds of employees the organization will need at future dates Demand for firm’s goods or services must be forecasted Forecast is then converted into people requirements

26 Forecasting HR Availability
Determining whether the firm will be able to secure employees with the necessary skills and from what sources Show whether the needed employees may be obtained from within the company, from outside the organization, or from a combination of the two sources

27 Surplus of Employees Restricted hiring Reduced hours Early retirement

28 Shortage of Workers Forecasted
Creative recruiting Compensation incentives Training programs Different selection standards

29 Succession Planning and Development
Succession planning - Process of ensuring that the qualified person is available to assume a managerial position once a position is vacant Succession development - Process of determining a comprehensive job profile of key positions and then ensuring that key prospects are properly developed to match these qualifications

30 Job Design Process of determining the specific tasks to be performed, the methods used in performing these tasks, and how the job relates to other work in the organization Job enrichment - Basic changes in the content and level of responsibility of a job, so as to provide greater challenge to the worker Job enlargement - Changes in the scope of a job to provide greater variety to the worker

31 Total Quality Management
A commitment to excellence by everyone in an organization that emphasizes excellence achieved by teamwork and a process of continuous improvement

32 Re-engineering The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed


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