2 Chapter ObjectivesDescribe why job analysis is a basic human resource tool.Explain the reasons for conducting job analysis.Describe the types of information required for job analysis.Describe the various job analysis methods.
3 Chapter Objectives (Continued) Describe some human resource forecasting techniques.Define requirements and availability forecasts.Identify what a firm can do when either a surplus or a shortage of workers exists.Describe job design.
5 Job Analysis, Job and Position Job analysis - Systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organizationJob - Consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organization to achieve its goalsPosition - Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person
6 Questions Job Analysis Should Answer What physical and mental tasks does the worker accomplish?When does the job have to be completed?Where is the job to be accomplished?How does the worker do the job?Why is the job done?What qualifications are needed to perform the job?
7 When Job Analysis Is Performed When the organization is foundedWhen new jobs are createdWhen jobs are changed significantly as a result of new technologies, methods, procedures, or systems
8 Job Descriptions/Specifications Job description - A document that provides information regarding the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of the jobJob specification - Minimum acceptable qualifications that a person should possess in order to perform a particular job
9 Reasons For Conducting Job Analysis StaffingTraining and DevelopmentCompensation and BenefitsSafety and HealthEmployee and Labor Relations
10 Job Analysis for TeamsHistorically, companies established permanent jobs and filled these jobs with people who best fit the job descriptionIn some firms today, people are being hired and paid on a project basisToday whenever someone asks "What is your job description?" the reply might well be "Whatever."
11 Types of Job Analysis Information Work activitiesWorker-oriented activitiesMachines, tools, equipment, and work aids usedJob-related tangibles and intangiblesWork performanceJob contentPersonal requirements for the job
13 Conducting Job Analysis Interested in gathering data regarding what is involved in performing a particular jobPeople who participate in job analysis
14 People Who Participate in Job Analysis Should Include (at a minimum) EmployeeEmployee’s immediate supervisorJob analystConsultants
15 Items Typically Included in Job Descriptions Major duties performedPercentage of time devoted to each dutyPerformance standards to be achievedWorking conditions and possible hazardsNumber of employees performing the job and who they report toThe machines and equipment used on the job
16 Job Description Job Identification Date of the Job Analysis Job SummaryDuties PerformedJob Specification
18 The Expanded Job Description Jobs are changingJobs are getting biggerJobs are getting more complexChanges the way virtually every HR function is performed
19 Timeliness of Job Analysis Need for accurate job analysis is importantMust be kept relevant
20 Other Job Analysis Methods Functional Job AnalysisPosition Analysis QuestionnaireManagement Position Description QuestionnaireGuidelines-Oriented Job AnalysisDescriptions Now
21 Strategic PlanningThe process by which top management determines overall organizational purposes and objectives and how they are to be achieved
22 Human Resource Planning The process of systematically reviewing HR requirements to ensure that the required number of employees, with the required skills, are available when they are needed
23 Human Resource Planning Human Resource Planning Process External Environment Internal EnvironmentStrategic PlanningHuman Resource PlanningForecasting Human Resource RequirementsComparing Requirements and AvailabilityForecasting Human Resource AvailabilityDemand =SupplySurplus of WorkersShortage of WorkersRestricted Hiring, Reduced Hours, Early Retirement, Layoff, DownsizingRecruitmentNo ActionSelection
25 Forecasting HR Requirements Estimate of numbers and kinds of employees the organization will need at future datesDemand for firm’s goods or services must be forecastedForecast is then converted into people requirements
26 Forecasting HR Availability Determining whether the firm will be able to secure employees with the necessary skills and from what sourcesShow whether the needed employees may be obtained from within the company, from outside the organization, or from a combination of the two sources
27 Surplus of Employees Restricted hiring Reduced hours Early retirement Layoffs
29 Succession Planning and Development Succession planning - Process of ensuring that the qualified person is available to assume a managerial position once a position is vacantSuccession development - Process of determining a comprehensive job profile of key positions and then ensuring that key prospects are properly developed to match these qualifications
30 Job DesignProcess of determining the specific tasks to be performed, the methods used in performing these tasks, and how the job relates to other work in the organizationJob enrichment - Basic changes in the content and level of responsibility of a job, so as to provide greater challenge to the workerJob enlargement - Changes in the scope of a job to provide greater variety to the worker
31 Total Quality Management A commitment to excellence by everyone in an organization that emphasizes excellence achieved by teamwork and a process of continuous improvement
32 Re-engineeringThe fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed