Compiler: Translates an entire program at one time then executes. Compiled programs execute much faster. Compilation is usually a multi-step process. Compilers do not require space in memory when programs run.
Interpreter: Translates a program line at a time while executing. Interpreted programs are slower because translation takes times. Interpretation translates in one step. Interpreters must be in memory while a program is running.
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES GENERATIONS 1GL MACHINE LANGUAGE 2GL ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 3GL HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE 4GL FOURTH GEN. LANGUAGE 5GL FIFTH GEN. LANGUAGE
MACHINE LANGUAGE LOWER LEVEL LANGUAGE Denoted by Binary Digits 0 & 1 Also known as Bits
MACHINE LANGUAGE Fast Execution Machine Dependence Difficult to program Difficult to modify
MACHINE LANGUAGE 10010010 00110101 Hey,this is easy! Hello! Fast Execution
Difficult to modify MACHINE LANGUAGE 1001???110 1111010??? Crash!
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE Easier to understand Easier to locate & correct errors Easier to modify ADD SUB MULT
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE Machine dependence Knowledge of hardware required
HIGHER LEVEL LANGUAGE Procedure oriented English words and mathematical symbols Translated by compiler or interpreter THIRD GENERATION LANGUAGE
HIGHER LEVEL LANGUAGE Machine independence Easy to learn and use Fewer errors Lower program preparation cost Easier to maintain
HIGHER LEVEL LANGUAGE Lower efficiency Less flexible
HIGHER LEVEL LANGUAGE FORTRAN-FORmula TRANSlation COBOL-Common Business Oriented Language BASIC- Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code PASCAL ALGOL- ALGOrithmic Language LOGO
FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES – 4GLs Non-procedural language Interactive coding - menus Limited training period Emphasis on end results Increased productivity Increased memory requirements
FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES – 4GLs Saves time and frees professional programmers for more complex tasks Easier to write Minimum syntax rules
They require more computer power and processing time. FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES – 4GLs Less control over how each task is actually performed.
FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGES – 4GLs Used in artificial intelligence and expert systems. Also used for accessing databases. Examples: SQL QBE Visual Basic
FIFTH GENERATION LANGUAGES – 5GLs Used in artificial intelligence and expert systems; also used for accessing databases. 5GLs are also nonprocedural languages and are also commonly used to query databases.
SOFTWARE SYSTEMS SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES MACHINE LANGUAGE ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE 4 th GENERATION 5th GENERATION