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Labour Elasticity of Supply

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1 Labour Elasticity of Supply
A2 Economics

2 Aims and Objectives Aim Understand the elasticity of labour supply
Define elasticity of supply in labour markets Explain the factors affecting supply to a firm. Analyse the determinants of elasticity of labour supply. Evaluate the ability of firms to influence the elasticity of supply.

3 Starter Changes in the UK/International labour supply.
People changing career paths to ones they enjoy!

4 The Supply of Labour to Specific Firms
Discuss in groups what would influence your decision to choose employment at one specific firm as apposed to another in the same industry. What factors would you need to consider if deciding to work for House of Fraser or John Lewis?

5 The Supply of Labour to Specific Firms
Some factors influence the supply of labour to particular firms: Availability of Training: if a firm offers a higher quantity and quality of training than others, it is likely to attract more workers. Location: Firms based in cities will have a greater pool of labour to select from. Benefit from good transport links. Level of Unemployment: when the level of unemployment is low, there may be skills shortages making it difficult for firms to fill vacancies Opportunities to work overtime: to earn more money

6 Industry Labour Supply Curve
Real Wage Rate Higher Wage Rate attracts more labour to the market. W2 W1 Q1 Q2 Quantity of Labour

7 Elasticity of Supply The responsiveness of the quantity of labour supplied to a change in the real wage rate. Vary from industry to industry. Elasticity of Labour Supply= Percentage change in quantity of labour supplied Percentage change in wage rate

8 Elasticity Determinants
Discuss why each of these factors influences the elasticity of the labour supply. Can you think of any more? Skills and Qualifications Length of Training Period Sense of Vocation Time Period

9 Skills and Qualifications
Jobs that require specific skills and qualifications will find it more difficult to attract workers when the real wage rises since there will be few workers with relevant skills Elasticity tends to be lower for skilled jobs than for unskilled

10 Length of Training Period
Jobs with long training periods will have low elasticities of labour supply, because workers may be put off by the length of the training period. Even if some workers are attracted by a higher wage rate, it may take several years to complete the required training.

11 Sense of Vocation For teachers and nurses the reward is not solely financial. Supply may not change much to a change in the wage rate. These types of jobs will be largely inelastic.

12 Time Period In the long run supply of labour will tend to be more elastic. This may be because certain occupations require a notice period However football managers do not!

13 Individuals Supply of Labour
At high wage levels an increase in the real wage rate will actually lead to a reduction in hours of labour supplied. Can be shown on a backward bending labour supply curve.

14 Backward Bending Labour Supply Curve
Effect on hours worked as real wage rate rises Real Wage Rate Substitution Effect + Income Effect - Overall - W2 Substitution Effect + Income Effect - Overall + W1 Substitution Effect + Income Effect + Overall + Q1 Q2 Hours Worked per Year

15 Individuals Supply of Labour
The effects of a change in the wage rate can be divided into two aspects. Substitution Effect If wages rise, leisure becomes relatively more expensive (it has a higher opportunity cost). There is a tendency to substitute extra hours of work, replacing hours of leisure. Substitution Effect Income Effect

16 Individuals Supply of Labour
Income Effect If a workers wages rise the workers income at current hours worked rises. This may encourage more work. Alternatively the individual may now decide they can afford more leisure time whilst maintaining a level of income. Summing the income and substitution effect gives the overall effect (wage effect).

17 Critique the backward bending labour supply curve.
Plenary: Discussion Can firms/ organisations/ governments influence or alter the elasticity of the labour supply in a given industry? Critique the backward bending labour supply curve.

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