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Lesson Six Subtitling.

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1 Lesson Six Subtitling

2 Jakobson Intralingual Interlingual Intersemiotic

3 Diagonal translation

4 Subtitles Jan Ivarrson ‘Subtitling for the Media’ 1992
Henrik Gottlieb ‘Subtitling, a new university discipline’ 1991, etc. Irene Kovacic (Llubiana) Yves Gambier (Turku) Jorge Diaz (Roehampton) Pilar Orero (Barcelona)

5 Intertitles Two years later Frankenstein had discovered the mystery of life. Tiger – the bully of the jungle …. cruel ….bloodthirsty. + letters, signs, etc.

6 Intertitles 2 UNCLE TOM’S CABIN 1927
Across two states – George Harris, ever on the trail of Lemul Proctor, the buyer of Little Harry. Moonlight bathing the old Kentucky home in radiance – romance in the winged and perfumed breezes of the night. “Dunno whar dey is, Missy ‘Liza”

7 Subtitles over the years
photographed on cards and then together with film; photo of whole film; ‘clichés’ printed on film; laser – vaporises emulsion at correct point; computer with time code.

8 Technical aspects 1 Script (but often transcription) translation
adaptation composition (translate all ‘written’ elements)

9 Technical aspects 2 Ideally there should be notes on the film itself,
the characters, the original story, the cultural references, etc. – but there never is!!! (Minchinton)

10 Technical aspects 3 SPOTTING – where to insert the subtitles. in cue
out cue spotting list.

11 Technical aspects 4 BACKGROUND white titles on dark background
bottom of screen where there is least light and least action except in snow scenes, etc. (black box)

12 Technical aspects 5 DIMENSIONS width 2/3 of screen – centred
height 15% of screen characters per line (28-38 on TV) (max. 68 or two lines of 20 ‘m’.)

13 Technical aspects 6 LINES 1 or 2 lines
2 lines avoids ‘flash effect’; generally better to have two one-liners together than two separate titles.

14 Technical aspects 7 TIME Film characters speak quicker than the
‘average reader’ – but what is the “average reader???” As it is necessary to also take in the visuals, etc., one line should remain on screen for at least FOUR seconds, and two lines for 6-8 seconds. Otherwise there is a danger of ‘re-reading’.

15 Technical aspects 8 GAP BETWEEN TITLES 3-8 frames or ¼ second.
Viewers need a fraction of a second to identify speaker (fixation pause). Must not overlap scene change or shot change. Otherwise viewer reads title again (overlapping effect).

16 Technical aspects 9 SEGMENTATION
Units must be syntactically and semantically complete. Never separate articles & nouns; prepositions & nouns, conjunctions & clauses, pronouns & verbs, compund verbs, adjectives & nouns, etc.

17 Technical aspects 9a (from CARO DIARIO)
“Non sapeva niente: come poteva immaginarsi che il giorno dopo per lui sarebbe cambiata la vita?” He didn’t know his life would change the next day He didn’t know his life would change the next day

18 Technical aspects 10 DIALOGUE Character One Character Two
Hello, how are you? None the better for seeing you! (second part appears before it is spoken)

19 Technical aspects 11 PUNCTUATION
Every language has a different prosody (rhythm of text, emphasis, irony, etc.) Fullstop to end title. Dots for hesitation, interruption … Exclamation and Question marks. Underlining. Italics – voice off, flashback, etc. Capitals for signs, posters, etc. Brackets (in arabic) or for deaf (train passing) # songs eg. #tralala

20 Readability The quality that makes possible the recognition of the information content of material when it is represented by alphanumeric characters in meaningful groupings, such as words, sentences or continuous text.

21 Fixation During reading our eyes do not move smoothly across the page … they make a series of jumps … … between the jumps the eyes remain relatively still, for about a quarter of a second, in what is referred to as a fixation.

22 Public view (from ‘Too Close to Home’ : L.Barclay)
A. …And he loved movies. But not the ones everyone else liked. He liked the ones with the words at the bottom. B. Subtitles. A. That’s right. Movies in different languages. He liked to watch those. He had an appreciation for things that other people didn’t care much about.

23 Video Echo

24 Video Echo sub

25 Gottlieb on Subtitling
Prepared communication using written language acting as an additive and synchronous semiotic channel as part of a transient And polysemiotic text

26 Subtitles/spontaneous conversation
Prepared not prepared Written spoken Additive original Synchronous extempore Transient ongoing Polysemiotic multimodal

27 Written As such, subtitling differs from all other types of screen translation. Loss: ‘reducing’ a language to writing. Gain: introduction of extraneous features that are not part of spoken discourse. Cf. ‘Pro rata’.

28 Additive Verbal material is added to the original maintaining the source language discourse. Intralingual/Interlingual

29 Immediate All discourse is presented in a flowing manner, beyond the control of the viewer. This is changing with the introduction of video, DVD, repetition in 24-hour TV news programmes, interactive TV (“press your red SKY button”), etc.

30 Synchronous The original film and the translated dialogue are presented simultaneously, not even like simultaneous interpreting, where there are dangers.

31 Polymedial Multimodal
At least two parallel channels are used to convey the total message of the original.

32 The Gottlieb Strategies

33 Transfer Complete translation Not word-for-word. Hi, honey.
Ciao, dolcezza.

34 Expansion Give extra information, for example in the case of culture bound terms. eg. ‘In the Name of the Father’: I.R.A.

35 Condensation Say the same thing in a shorter way, If only I could…

36 Decimation Remove completely a part of the discourse.
Si ma guardi cos’ha combinato, guardi che casino, porca puttana… But look at this bloody mess (from ‘La Bionda’ di S. Rubini)

37 Deletion Remove entire text. Would you like a cigarette?

38 Cf. sign language for the deaf
Ultimo confronto stasera di questa coppa dei campioni della politica in cinque giornate che si è disputata nelle ultime settimane su RAI uno e partita di ritorno tra Silvio Berlusconi e Romano Prodi. Stasera, su RAI uno, ultimo dibattito politico della campagna elettorale tra Silvio Berlusconi e Romano Prodi.

39 Paraphrase Say the same thing in a different way.
For example ‘Kramer versus Kramer’ Ebbets Field…. monopattini…

40 Imitation Repeat verbatim. For example, names, quotes, etc.
Janes Bond, Fifth Avenue, “c’est la vie”.

41 Transcription Copy any speech defects, etc. ‘A fish called Wanda’
They don’t Non c..c..c..

42 Dislocation Shift from say song to prose.

43 Resignation Defeated by culture bound reference. For example ‘Friends’
… a big foam finger. … una birra gigantesca.

44 Strategies Expansion: expanded expression, adequate rendering;
Paraphrase: altered expression, adequate rendering; Transfer: full expression, adequate rendering; Imitation: identical expression, equivalent rendering; Transcription: anomolous expression, adequate rendering; Dislocation: different expression, adjusted content; Condensation: condensed expression, concise rendering; Decimation: abridged expression, reduced content; Deletion: omitted expression, no verbal content; Resignation: differing expression, distorted content;

45 Transfer ‘Caro Diario’
D’estate a Roma i cinema sono tutti chiusi. Summer in Rome, the cinemas are all closed.

46 Expansion ‘Caro Diario’
caseina di capra, groviera. gorgonzola… goat’s cheese, Swiss cheese, gorgonzola…

47 Condensation ‘Caro Diario’
Ora è tutto cambiato, ora è tutto veramente cambiato. Everything has really changed.

48 Decimation ‘Caro Diario’
Agenti di borsa, deputati, assessori, giormalisti,… Brokers, congressmen, journalists,…

49 Deletion ‘Caro Diario’
Te lo dico io perché. Perché odio gente … come te! I hate people like you!

50 Paraphrase ‘Caro Diario’
Ormai ha paura di rimettermi in gioco. I’m afraid to re-think my life.

51 Imitation ‘Caro Diario’
Quam juvat – quant’è bello! Quam juvat – how beautiful!

52 Transcription ‘Caro Diario’
Ca-pi-sci quel-lo che ti dico? Un-der-stand what I’m say-ing?

53 Resignation ‘Caro Diario’
Garibaldi qui ci ha fatto la resistenza. Garibaldi fought here.

54 Moretti monologue: Italian
D’estate a Roma, i cinema sono tutti chiusi. Oppure ci sono … film dell’orrore come “Henry”. Oppure qualche film italiano. Ormai ho paura di rimettermi in gioco.. Sono un vigliacco. Ma cosa è successo in tutti questi anni? Ditemelo voi. Ti si stanno imbiancando le tempie. Incominciano a pesare le sconfitte..

55 Moretti monologue: English
Summer in Rome, the cinemas are closed (T) All you can see is … (P) horror films like “Henry, Portrait of a Serial Killer” (E) Or some Italian films (T) I’m afraid to re-think my life (P) I’m a coward (T) What happened. Tell me? (D) Your temples are turning white. (T) The weight of defeat. (C)

56 ENGLISH No. subtitles % transfer 661 66.3% condensation 165 16.5% decimation 45 4.5% paraphrase 35 3.5% deletion imitation 33 3.3% transcription 11 1.1% expansion 9 0.9% resignation 3 0.3% dislocation 1 0.1% TOTAL 997 100%

57 SPANISH No. subtitles % transfer 950 80.7 condensation 96 8.2 imitation 40 3.4 decimation 27 2.3 paraphrase 23 2 transcription 15 deletion 13 1.1 expansion 5 0.4

58 A Stranger among us (1992) Transfer 79% Condensation 7% Imitation 5%

59 La vita è bella – scena dell’interpretazione

60 Video Posto sub max

61 Video Posto sub min

62 Subtitling for what? Subtitling of different film types
documentary, soap opera, film Subtitling from filmese to filmese to natural Subtitling for didactic purposes entertainment purposes

63 Subtitles for teaching
lexico-grammar items registers genres conversation analysis translation

64 Other languages Intralingual subtitling Interlingual subtitling
English-English Italian-Italian Gaelic-Gaelic? Interlingual subtitling English-Italian and vice versa English-Galician Portuguese and vice versa

65 Database Create database of subtitled genres:
car adverts (drinks adverts) domestic soap scenes nature documentaries ‘rows’ etc.

66 Relational database Relate subtitled text to other semiotic modalities
gesture music camera angle/position etc.


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