Gender and the Timing of Marriage: Rural-Urban Differences in Java and The Marriage Quiz: College Students’ Beliefs in Selected Myths About Marriage Sheena.
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Gender and the Timing of Marriage: Rural-Urban Differences in Java and The Marriage Quiz: College Students’ Beliefs in Selected Myths About Marriage Sheena Harder Katie Peterson Mathew Thyne Lindsay Petterson
Gender and the Timing of Marriage: Indonesian Context Though inequality still remains, Java offers women opportunities for independence and power. – Economic participation, property rights, and power in the household and relationships are societal norms for women. Thought to be clever, good money managers and equal economic partners in marriage – Patriarchal constraints still exist: Males still make many of the decisions Lower wages for women Marriages are arranged shortly after puberty to ensure purity though divorce is a viable option.
Gender and the Timing of Marriage: Points of Study Gender – Men marry later than women. Family Background – Agrarian – Socioeconomic class Education – Time spent in school – Content of schooling – Increased employability with additional skills and training
Gender and the Timing of Marriage: Rural vs. Urban Results Rural agrarian culture: – Mean ages of marriage: Men- 22.3 years Women- 16.3 years – Highest marriage type %: Men- 36.4%-self choice with parental approval Women-51.8%- arranged entirely by parents Urban culture: – Mean ages of marriage: Men- 24.3 years Women- 18.5 years – Highest marriage type %: Men- 68.5% Women- 45.8% Prominent marriage type for both genders was self-choice with parental approval
Gender and the Timing of Marriage: Conclusions Examination of both female and male marriage patterns is essential to a more comprehensive understanding of marriage and family process in Asian settings. Modern urban settings do not necessarily reduce gender differences in marriage behavior and its determinants and, in fact, may be responsible for more differences in gender roles. – Men tend to marry later and with less parental involvement – School attendance is a delaying factor for both sexes Results represent the contrasts in rural and urban marriage settings in Central Java prior to 1980
The Marriage Quiz: Purpose and Hypothesis Unrealistic expectations and beliefs in common marriage myths may contribute to the current high divorce rate Assessing college students’ beliefs in marriage myths can help guide the content of family life education Groups less likely to believe in marital myths: – Female students – Students with less romantic views about marriage – Students who have completed a course in marriage/family issues
The Marriage Quiz: Results All three hypotheses were validated As a whole, the group missed nearly half (47%) of the items on the quiz
The Marriage Quiz: Myths most commonly mistaken as facts Having a child improves satisfaction (item 3) Satisfaction increases through life stages (item 10) Cohabitation before marriage improves marital satisfaction (item 14) The more a spouse discloses the greater satisfaction (item 18) Romantic love is the key to marital happiness (item 20)
Discussion Questions Do you think there are many differences between rural and urban marriage culture and customs in America? Why do you think status is so important for marriage in Indonesia? Why do you think employment delays marriage for women, but increases marriage for men? Which, if any, items were surprising to be myths? According to the article, women missed fewer items than men because of socialization that encourages women to prepare more for marriage than males. Do you agree?