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22 - Adulthood: Psychosocial Development

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Presentation on theme: "22 - Adulthood: Psychosocial Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 22 - Adulthood: Psychosocial Development


3 Major theories Erikson’s Stages Maslow’s stages
Generativity vs. stagnation Maslow’s stages 5. Self-actualization 4. Success and esteem 3. Love and belonging 2. Safety 1. Physiology

4 Midlife crisis 40’s Anxiety, self-reexamination, transformation
Related more to developmental history than age

5 Intimacy

6 Intimacy needs are lifelong
Met by: family, friends, coworkers, & romantic partners (the social convoy)

7 Family bonds: Parent-Adult child relationships
Become closer as both generations mature (Improves with age) May deteriorate if they live together Familism Belief that family members should support each other

8 Adult siblings Become more supportive than earlier
Help to cope with children, marriage, and elderly relatives

9 Family bonds

10 Marriage and happiness
Married people (In satisfying marriages) Happier, Healthier, Richer Learning to understand and forgive each other promotes happiness Cohabitation before marriage Decreases happiness after marriage Domestic violence is most likely to occur early in a relationship

11 Children and happiness
Happiness is highest before children Decreases with birth of first child & additional children Decreases again when children reach puberty Teenage years Happiness improves after child raising years (Empty nest) Children become more independent

12 Empty nest (After children leave) Improves relationships
Parents are alone again More time for their relationship More money available Longtime partners Stay together because of love & trust

13 Divorce and separation
Almost 1 out of 2 marriages ends in divorce in the U.S. About 1/3 of all first marriages end in divorce Remarried people have a greater chance of divorce than first married Adults are affected by divorce in ways they never anticipated Very distressed marriages = happier after divorce Emotionally distant marriages (most in U.S.) = less happy than they thought they would be

14 Consequences of divorce
Can last for decades Divorce reduces income, severs friendships, and weakens family ties Income, family welfare, and self-esteem = lower among formerly married than still married or never married

15 Generativity Erikson’s Generativity vs. Stagnation Satisfied by
Creativity Caregiving Guiding the next generation Employment

16 Caregiving for children
Your biological children Parent must change to adopt to developmental stages of child.

17 Caring for aging parents
Sandwich generation Sandwitched between their children and their parents Few adult children are full-time caregivers Therefore, not technically sandwitched Often only one child bears the burden Creates resentment Caregiving for parents is often based on the child’s personality

18 Employment

19 Employment = generativity
Unemployed = higher rates of child abuse, alcoholism, depression & other problems. Happiness is not necessarily related to income Income has doubled (in last 50 years) but happiness has not Work meets generativity needs to: Use personal skills Be creative Advise coworkers as a friend or mentor

20 Working for more than money
Extrinsic rewards (Outside - External) Salary Health insurance Pension Intrinsic rewards (Inside – internal) Intangible rewards Job satisfaction Self-esteem Pride in contributing Feeling needed


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