PPA 573 – Emergency Management and Homeland Security Lecture 4c – Planning, Training, and Exercising.
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PPA 573 – Emergency Management and Homeland Security Lecture 4c – Planning, Training, and Exercising
Plans and Planning Two principal approaches to planning Military planning. Integrated emergency management system. Superimposing military (hierarchical) approach on state and local government can create problems. Military organized to execute plans. Local government is not.
Plans and Planning Integrated emergency management. IEMS supports the development of multihazard plans with functional annexes and hazard-specific appendices. But can produce voluminous documents that make specific hazard material hard to find and implement.
Federal and State Requirements: Types of Plans FEMA recommends that each jurisdiction develop a comprehensive emergency operations plan (EOP) encompassing all hazards that pose a significant threat to the community.
Federal and State Requirements: Types of Plans The goals of emergency management planning at the state and local level are to: Foster a nationwide systematic approach to state and local planning for emergency management. Develop plans supporting a capability for prompt, coordinated response to large-scale disasters or threats simultaneously by all levels of government. Prove a basis for assured continuity of government. Improve the operational utility of emergency plans. Promote uniformity of principles, policies, and concepts of operations and compatibility of organizations and systems to facilitate coordinated response. Reduce redundancy in plan documentation.
Plan Format Basic plan. Introduction. Purpose. Situation and assumptions. Concept of operations. Organization and assignment of responsibilities. Administration and logistics. Plan development and maintenance. Authorities and references. Definition of terms.
Plan Format Annexes. Clarify basic plan where necessary. Needs of the basic plan should govern the number and types of annexes. Each annex should deal with a single function. Each annex should be prepared by the agency that has responsibility for the function. The annexes should not cover matters governed by standard operating procedures.
Plan Format Types of Annexes Direction and control. Communications. Warning. Emergency public information. Education and training. Evacuation. Shelter (reception and care). Medical health.
Plan Format Types of annexes (contd.). Law enforcement. Public works. Fire and rescue. Transportation. Human services (welfare). Reporting procedures. Continuity of government. Damage assessment. Radiological defense
Plan Format Appendixes. Create implementation guides that focus on specific hazards.
Levels of Plans State plan. Regional plans and studies. Local plans. Departmental and support-agency plans.
Plan Development at the Local Level Understand the obstacles. Lack of planning expertise. Lack of formal training. The belief that planning is unnecessary. Review and update the hazard vulnerability analysis. Organize a planning committee. Temporary. Permanent.
Plan Development at the Local Level Devise a schedule. Publish a planning directive. Purpose. Authority. Objectives. Concept. Schedule for plan development. Organization for planning. Assignment of responsibilities for plan development. Development of annexes. Review and approval. Special instructions.
Plan Development at the Local Level Evaluate the draft plan (things to consider). Lines of authority and succession. Ordinances. Broadcasting emergency information. Responses to citizens’ questions. Evacuation of medical facilities. Persons with special needs. Search and rescue. Response versus recovery planning. Intergovernmental resource distribution. Security. Incident command.
Training Dimensions of a training program. Three-dimensional. Training provided by FEMA and the state. Internal training. Community education. Training support.
Exercising Exercising is the primary way to test the EOP. Detect deficiencies in the EOP. Detect deficiencies in the overall EMS. Identify potential personnel and staff problems. Detect problems with the functioning and operation of equipment.
Exercising Progressive exercises. Tabletop exercise. Scenarios on coordination and responsibility. Functional exercise. Three months to develop. Direction, control, and warning functions, evaluation of EOC. Full-scale exercise. More than three months. Full mobilization. Timely public notice.
Exercising Medical facilities and the exercise program. EM should encourage medical facilities to participate in community exercises rather than conduct independent ones. Organizing an exercise program. Exercise committee. Program, schedule, scenarios. Announced versus unannounced exercises.
Exercising Organizing an exercise program (contd.). A document describing the exercise. Critique of the exercise. Computer simulations. Budgeting for exercises. Recovery exercises. Complete plan should include a recovery exercise.
Conclusion Military system of planning not the best model. Professionalism of emergency manager must be upgraded through hiring and training. Entire planning committee should be trained. Training and exercising should include computer simulation.