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Chapter 11 Wide Area Networking (WAN) Protocols Defining WAN Terms Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) is your stuff Demarcation (demarc) is end of provider’s.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Wide Area Networking (WAN) Protocols Defining WAN Terms Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) is your stuff Demarcation (demarc) is end of provider’s."— Presentation transcript:


2 Chapter 11 Wide Area Networking (WAN) Protocols

3 Defining WAN Terms Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) is your stuff Demarcation (demarc) is end of provider’s responsibility Local loop connects demarc to central office Central Office (CO) / Point of Presence (POP) connects customer to provider’s switching network Toll network - trunk lines in WAN network

4 WAN Connection Types Up to 45 Mbps

5 WAN Support Frame Relay – packet switched, 64 Kbps to 1.44 Mbps ISDN – voice and data over phone lines LAPB – connection oriented, good with errors, not used much HDLC - connection oriented, proprietary PPP – standard protocol, very flexible ATM – simultaneous transmission of voice, video and data, uses 53 byte sized cells for sending.

6 Serial Transmission Cisco routers use a proprietary 60-pin serial connector Serial links are described in frequency or cycles-per-second Amount of data carried inside a frequency is the bandwidth – Bits-per-second that a serial line can carry

7 DCE/DTE Equipment DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) – Routers are (usually) DTEs DCE (Data Communication Equipment) – CSU/DSUs are the DCEs

8 HDLC Protocol “High Level Data Link Control” Bit-oriented Data Link layer ISO standard protocol Specifies a data encapsulation method Point-to-Point protocol for leased lines No authentication can be used Different HDLC versions incompatible

9 HDLC Frame Format

10 Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Transport layer-3 packets across a Data Link layer point-to-point link Can be used over asynchronous serial (dial- up) or synchronous serial (ISDN) media Uses Link Control Protocol (LCP) – Builds & maintains data-link connections

11 Point-to-Point Protocol Stack

12 PPP Main Components EIA/TIA-232-C - standard for serial communications HDLC - serial link datagram encapsulation method LCP - used in Point-to-Point connections: – Establishing – Maintaining – Terminating NCP – Establishes & configures Network Layer protocols – Allows simultaneous use of multiple Network layer protocols

13 LCP Configuration Options Authentication identifies the user; PAP and CHAP Compression helps speed transfers; Stacker and Predictor Error detection; Quality and Magic Number Multilink splits the load for PPP over 2+ parallel circuits (a bundle)

14 PPP Session Establishment Link-establishment phase – LCP packets test the link Authentication phase (if configured) – PAP or CHAP do their stuff Network layer protocol phase – PPP uses Network Control Protocol to encapsulate other protocols

15 PPP Authentication Methods Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) – Passwords sent in clear text – Remote node returns username & password Challenge Authentication Protocol (CHAP) – Done at start-up & periodically – Challenge & Reply Remote router sends a one-way hash ~ MD5

16 Configuring PPP Step #1: Configure PPP on RouterA & RouterB: Router__#config t Router__(config)#int s0 Router__(config-if)#encapsulation ppp Router__(config-if)#^Z Step #2: Define the username & password on each router: – RouterA:RouterA(config)#username RouterB password cisco – RouterB:RouterB(config)#username RouterA password cisco remote NOTE: (1) Username maps to the remote router (2) Passwords must match Step #3: Choose Authentication type for each router; CHAP/PAP Router__(Config)#int s0 Router__(config-if)#ppp authentication chap Router__(config-if)#ppp authentication pap Router__(config-if)#^Z

17 Frame Relay Background – High-performance WAN encapsulatuon method – OSI Physical & data Link layer – Originally designed for use across ISDN Supported Protocols – IP, DECnet, AppleTalk, Xerox Network Service (XNS), Novell IPX, Banyan Vines, Transparent Bridging, & ISO

18 Frame Relay Provide a communications interface between DTE & DCE equipment Connection-oriented Data Link layer communication – Via virtual circuits – Provides a complete path from the source to destination before sending the first frame

19 Frame Relay Terminology

20 Frame Relay Encapsulation Specified on serial interfaces Encapsulation types (choose one): – Cisco (default encapsulation type) – IETF (used between Cisco & non-Cisco devices) RouterA(config)#int s0 RouterA(config-if)#encapsulation frame relay ? ietf Use RFC1490 encapsulation

21 Data Link Connection Identifiers (DLCIs) Frame Relay PVCs are identified by DLCIs IP end devices are mapped to DLCIs – Mapped dynamically or mapped by IARP Global Significance: – Advertised to all remote sites as the same PVC Local Significance: – DLCIs do not need to be unique Configuration RouterA(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci ? Define a DLCI as part of the current subinterface RouterA(config-if)#frame-relay interface-dlci 16

22 Local Management Interface (LMI) Adds to frame relay Allows routers to talk to frame switch LMI messages from router to switch: – Keepalives (is data flowing?) – Multicasting (DLCI PVCs) – Multicast addressing (global significance) – Status of DLCI virtual circuits

23 LMI Types Three types of LMI: RouterA(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type ? cisco ansi q933a – LMI type is auto-sensed beginning with IOS 11.2+ – Default type: cisco Virtual circuit status: – Active – routers are routing – Inactive – router is up, remote router is not – Deleted – no LMI info is being received

24 Sub-interfaces Multiple virtual circuits on a single serial interface Allows different network-layer characteristics for each sub-interface – IP routing on one sub-interface – IPX routing on another Reduces difficulties associated with: – Partial meshed Frame Relay networks – Split Horizon protocols

25 Partial Meshed Networks This works on a LAN, but is messy with WANs Have to set up PVCs for frame relay

26 Full Mesh Networks This works on LANs and WANs, but is very expensive Each circuit is a separate cost

27 Partial Mesh w/ Subinterfaces A, B, and C are fully meshed C and D are point to point D and E are point to point C and D have subinterfaces to forward packets

28 Creating Sub-interfaces #1: Set the encapsulation on the serial interface #2: Define the subinterface RouterA(config)#int s0 RouterA(config)#encapsulation frame-relay RouterA(config)#int s0.? Serial interface number RouterA(config)#int s0.16 ? multipoint Treat as a multipoint link point-to-point Treat as a point-to-point link

29 Mapping Frame Relay Necessary for IP end devices to communicate Addresses must be mapped to the DLCIs Methods: – Frame Relay map command – Inverse-arp function

30 Using the map command RouterA(config)#int s0 RouterA(config-if)#encap frame RouterA(config-if)#int s0.16 point-to-point RouterA(config-if)#no inverse-arp RouterA(config-if)#ip address RouterA(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 16 ietf broadcast RouterA(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 17 broadcast RouterA(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 18 See page 552 for full explanation

31 Using inverse arp command RouterA(config)#int s0.16 point-to-point RouterA(config-if)#encap frame-relay ietf RouterA(config-if)#ip address

32 Congestion Control What if frame relay circuit gets too busy? Discard Eligibility (DE) drops packets that are eligible Forward-Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN) alerts destination DCE that circuit is busy Backward-Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN) alerts source router to slow down

33 Committed Information Rate (CIR) Allows customers to purchase amounts of bandwidth lower than what they might need CIR is guaranteed rate, extra traffic is not guaranteed – Cost savings – Good for bursty traffic – Not good for constant amounts of data transmission

34 Monitoring Frame Relay RouterA>sho frame ? ip show frame relay IP statistics lmi show frame relay lmi statistics map Frame-Relay map table pvc show frame relay pvc statistics route show frame relay route traffic Frame-Relay protocol statistics RouterA#sho int s0 RouterB#show frame map Router#debug frame-relay lmi

35 ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network – Used by Telecoms to simultaneously send voice, data, and music, etc. over current phone lines – Uses PPP typically

36 ISDN Uses BRI (Basic Rate Interface) – 2-64 K channels for data – 1-16 K signaling channel Uses terminals – TE1 – Understand ISDN standards – TE2 – predate standards and use an adapter – NT1 – converts 4-wire to 2-wire ISDN – NT2 – Switch or PBX (rare) – TA – adapter for ISDN

37 BRI Basic Rate Interface – Operates at 64 Kbps – Total bandwidth for ISDN BRI is 144 Kbps (64x2 and 16) In NA and Japan, have PRI (Primary Rate Interface) – Operates at 1.544 Kbps (23x64 and 64) In Europe and AUstralia, have PRI (Primary Rate Interface) – Operates at 2.048 Kbps (30x64 and 64)

38 DDR Dial-On-Demand Routing – As needed basis – Need the equipment in order to run

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