2 Essential Question:What are the advantages and disadvantages of the different economic systems used by countries to answer the 3 basic economic questions to meet a standard of living for its population?
4 Standard of Living- quality of life based on our needs and wants Standard of Living- quality of life based on our needs and wants. What should everyone have?For America-
5 Cost Benefit Analysis-Evaluate alternatives Trade-Off- alternative choices when ever an economic decision is made.Opportunity Cost- the cost of the next best alternative use of money, time, or resources.
6 Traditional-An economic system where tradition and custom govern economic decisions-Economic activities are usually centered toward the family, tribe, or ethnic group-Resources are allocated based on inheritance-Farming, hunting, and gathering are done largely in the same fashion as the generation before-Choices are determined by environment-Little or no use of technology
7 Traditional Economy- Not many left DisadvantagesAdvantagesLittle uncertainty of how to answer the 3 economic questions.What?- Your family farms you farm. They hunt to huntHow?- Just like DadWhom?- determined by customs and traditionsDiscourages new ideas and new ways of doing thingsLack of progress and very constrictinglower standard of living
8 Command-The government or other central authority makes all economic decisions-Individuals have little, if any, influence over economic functions-Resources are owned by the government-There is no competition; the purpose of business is to provide goods and services, not to make a profit-Factories are concerned with quotas-Consumers have few, if any, choices in the market place-The government sets the prices of goods and services
9 Command “Communist "economies- Few left Cuba, North Korea DisadvantagesAdvantagesCan focus its factors of production quickly because all major decisions are centralized.Typically many public services such as education and health-care available to the majority of the people. Quality varies-Serves people collectively instead of individuals; focus on equality-Distributes wealth among all of society-Products produces fulfill needsNot designed to meet the wants of consumersNo or little incentive to be productive because all receive similar wages.Little or no innovation-Often there is insufficient resource distribution, ie. Shortages and/or surpluses
10 What changes is Cuba making to their economy? Have allowed trade with some foreign countriesHave allowed the use of the dollarHave allowed small “State” controlled markets to open up.
16 Market Economy-Economic decisions are made by individuals competing to earn profits based on supply and demand-Resources are owned by individuals-Profit, not quotas, is the motive for increasing work-Competition determines price and increases the quality of products-Individual freedom is considered very important; individuals have freedom to make economic decisions-Also called “capitalist” economy
17 Market Economies Advantages Disadvantages -Prices determine by market forces (supply and demand); competition brings down prices-Consumers can buy whatever they like in whatever amounts they want-Adjusts to change easily-Little government intervention-Great variety of goods and services-Capital flows to whereDoes not always provide basic needs of everyone in society, which can lead people to slip into poverty-May make it difficult for government to provide adequate social services-There are occasionally market failures-People can make choices which are harmful to themselves and to others
18 Mixed Economy-Combines elements of pure market and command economies; Government and individuals share the economic decision making process-Government guides and regulates production of goods and services-Resources are owned by individuals-Government serves to protect both producers and consumers from unfair policies and practices
19 Mixed economy *See advantages of command and market economic systems Disadvantages*See advantages of command and market economic systems-Can focuses on social welfare and political freedom, as well as individual liberties*See disadvantages of command and market economic systems-May not lead to optimal use of resources-Government intervention can hinder progress
20 Comparative Economic Systems 1. How can the presence or Scarcity of natural resources and arable land affect a nation’s economy, regardless of the type of economic system?2. How can life expectancy and literacy rates affect the quality of a countries Human Resources in the economy?3. How can fertility rates affect the use of scarce resources?
21 4. How can GDP per capita and poverty rates indicate standards of living in each system? 5. How can the size of the industrial/service sector and the agriculture employment rate indicate the level of industrialization?6. How can electricity, communication, and transportation facilities indicate the potential for industrial growth?
22 7. Considering the lack of natural resources, the labor problems, and the lack of capital and little industrialization of developing countries, how can developing countries develop? (Hint: Look at Economy - Overview for Chad).8. Now that you have studied the economic characteristics of these three countries, define the terms market-oriented, command, and developing economy in your own words. For each term, describe the specific characteristics of the countries you studied that would help to support your definition.