2 What is a force? A force is a push or a pull on an object. Two types of forces:Contact Force: Two objects are in contact with each other causing a force (ex: springs, physically pulling something, etc.)Field Force: A force is induced by two objects that are not touching (ex: Electrostatic forces, magnetism, gravity)
3 Units of ForceSI Unit = Newton (N)English Unit = Pound (lb)
4 Isaac Newton (1642 – 1727) English Physicist and Mathematician Credited with inventing CalculusFormulated the basic laws of mechanics, discovered the law of gravitation, and numerous smaller discoveries
5 Newton’s 1st Law of Motion An object moves with a velocity that is constant in magnitude and direction, unless acted on by a nonzero net force.The “Lazy Law” or the “Law of Inertia”Inertia: The tendancy of an object to continue in its original state of motion.“An object stays in motion (or stays at rest) unless acted upon by another net force.
6 Newton’s 2nd LawThe acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass.
7 Newton’s 3rd Law If object 1 and object 2 interact, the force exerted by object 1 on object 2 is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the force exerted by object 2 on object 1.“Every action force has an equal but oppositely-directed reaction force.”
8 Types of ForcesGravity: The force of attraction between two massive bodies. Often called “weight” on Earth.Normal Force: The force exerted by an object on another object in direct contact. Always perpendicular to the surface.Tension: Force that is exerted along a ropeFriction: Force that always opposes motion
9 Net ForcesNet Force: The vector sum of all forces acting on an object.Free Body Diagram: A pictoral representation of all of the vector forces acting on an object’s center of mass.
10 Free Body Diagram Example Bob is standing in the street. Draw a FBD for Bob.First, draw a dot representing Bob’s center of mass.Next, consider every force that is acting on Bob and its direction.Forces:1) Gravity (downward)2) Normal Force (upward)Normal ForceGravityThere are no ropes present (no tension) and Bob isn’t moving (no friction).
11 Another Free Body Diagram Example Bob is getting pulled down the street (to the east) by his friend Joe with a rope. Draw a FBD for Bob.Forces:1) Normal force of street onto Bob2) Gravity3) Tension (towards the east)4) Friction (opposing the tension, pointed to the west)Normal ForceFrictionTensionGravity
12 Another Free Body Example Bob is pulling a crate up an inclined plane by a rope. Draw a FBD for the crate.Lets draw a picture.Forces:1) Gravity (downward)2) Normal Force (perpendicular to surface)3) Tension (up the incline)4) Friction (down the incline)Normal ForceTensionFrictionGravity
13 Using Newton’s 2nd LawCalculate the weight of an object using Newton’s 2nd Law.What is the appropriate acceleration? Use the acceleration due to gravity on the Earth’s surface! (g = 9.81 m/s2)Hence, weight = mass * g
14 Weight Example Problems Calculate the weight of a 5 kg bowling ball.Calculate the mass of a 150 N doll.
15 Newton’s 2nd Law Example An airboat of mass 3.50 x 102 kg, including passengers, has an engine that produces a net horizontal force of 7.70 x 102 N, after accounting for forces of resistance.(a) Find the acceleration of the airboat(b) Starting from rest, how long does it take the airboat to reach a speed of 12.0 m/s?(c) After reaching this speed, the pilot turns off the engine and drifts to a stop over a distance of 50.0 m. Find the resistance force, assuming its constant.
16 Newton’s 2nd Law Example Cntd. First, apply Newton’s 2nd Law to find the acceleration.Now, use this acceleration and a kinematics equation to find the time. Remember, the boat starts from rest.
17 Newton’s 2nd Law Example Cntd. Now, lets find the resistance force. First, lets find the resistance acceleration (or deceleration) using kinematics.Now, lets use the deceleration and mass to find the resistance force using Newton’s 2nd Law: