Presentation on theme: "PARTS OF SPEECH 1 The principles of the traditional classification of the English vocabulary 2 Notional and functional parts of speech. 3 The field structure."— Presentation transcript:
1 PARTS OF SPEECH1 The principles of the traditional classification of the English vocabulary 2 Notional and functional parts of speech. 3 The field structure of the English vocabulary. 4 New approaches to the vocabulary classification
2 The division of words into classes CRITERIA:Semantic (meaning)Formal (form) derivational featuresa set of grammaticalcategoriesFunctional (function) function in the sentencecombinability
3 Traditional grammar approach Scherba: notional parts of speech(N, V, Adv, Adj, Pron, Num)Functional parts of speech(art, prep, conj, part, modal words, interj)V.Vinogradov: notional parts of speech(N, V, Adv, Adj, Pron, Num, the category of state (alone, alive,ashore)Functional: particles proper, linking particles, prepositions,conjunctions)
4 M. Blokh (semantico-grammatical analysis): Notional (names): N,V,Adv,Adjpronominal words (substitutes of names):pronouns, numbers, words of broad semantcs (“do”, ”thing” etc. )Functional words: prep, conj, particles, determiners etc.
5 Modern approaches J. Sweet divided the vocabulary on the morphological properties intodeclinables (N, Adj, V) and indeclinables (Adv, Prep, Conj, Interj).on the basis of the syntactic functioning of definite classes of words intonominal words (noun-words) include noun-pronouns, noun-numerals, infinitives, gerunds;adjective words include adjective pronouns, adjective numerals, particles;verb group includes personal forms and verbals.
6 Glison’s classification is based on two formal indications: morphological form and word-order (the group which has formal indications of word-changing (N, V, Adj, Adv)and the group which has no such indications. nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbsSledda distinguishes inflectional (nominals, verbals, adjectivals, adverbials) and positional classes. He also adds 8 smaller classes here: auxiliary verbs, determiners, prepositions conjunctions and different classes of pronouns.
7 O. Jespersen proposed a classification based on the lexical meaning and morphological function of the word in the phrase.(The theory of three ranks)primary word (Adj + N) e.g. a barking dogsecondary word (Adj + N) - a barking dogtertiary words: a furiously barking dogIn the junction we find primaries and adjuncts, subjunctsIn the sentence I see a dog we find nexus (I see) and adnex (a dog)
8 The field structure of the English Vocabulary NounsAdjectivesVerbsAdvThe field structure of the English Vocabulary
9 Notional and functional parts of speech 1 The lexical meaning is bright and distinct 2 They аre open classes 3 They perform certain functions in the sentence 4 They form the "Lexical Paradigm of Nomination“1 The lexical meaning is very general and weak; 2 they are closed systems (include a limited number of members); 3 function as linking and specifying words. 4 They have obligatory combinability;
10 The Lexical Paradigm of Nomination Fancy - to fancy - fanciful - fancifully To decide – decision – decisive – decisively Beauty – to beautify – beautiful - beautifully an end - to end -final - finally" (lexemic suppletivity), gratitude - grateful - gratefully - to express gratitude (phrasemic suppletivity). one, it, they … - to do, to make, to act … - such, same, similar … - thus, so, there…