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**Chapter 10 Chemical Quantities 10.1 The Mole: A Measurement of Matter**

10.2 Mole-Mass and Mole-Volume Relationships 10.3 Percent Composition and Chemical Formulas Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**How can you quantify the amount of sand in a sand sculpture?**

CHEMISTRY & YOU How can you quantify the amount of sand in a sand sculpture? You could measure the amount of sand in a sculpture by counting the grains of sand. Is there an easier way to measure the amount of sand? Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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Measuring Matter Measuring Matter How can you convert among the count, mass, and volume of something? Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Chemistry is a quantitative science.**

Measuring Matter Chemistry is a quantitative science. In your study of chemistry, you will analyze the composition of samples of matter and perform chemical calculations that relate quantities of the reactants in a chemical reaction to quantities of the products. To solve these and other problems, you will have to be able to measure the amount of matter you have. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Apples can be measured in three different ways.**

Measuring Matter Apples can be measured in three different ways. At a fruit stand, they are often sold by the count. In a supermarket, you usually buy apples by weight or mass. At an orchard, you can buy apples by volume. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**For average-sized apples, the following approximations can be used.**

Measuring Matter Each of these different ways to measure apples can be equated to a dozen apples. By count: 1 dozen apples = 12 apples For average-sized apples, the following approximations can be used. By mass: 1 dozen apples = 2.0 kg apples By volume: 1 dozen apples = 0.20 bushel apples Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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Measuring Matter Knowing how the count, mass, and volume of an item relate to a common unit allows you to convert among these units. For example, based on the unit relationship, you could calculate the mass of a bushel of apples or the mass of 90 average-sized apples using conversion factors such as the following: 12 apples 1 dozen apples 2.0 kg apples 0.20 bushel apples Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Finding Mass from a Count**

Sample Problem 10.1 Finding Mass from a Count What is the mass of 90 average-sized apples if 1 dozen of the apples has a mass of 2.0 kg? Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Analyze List the knowns and the unknown.**

Sample Problem 10.1 Analyze List the knowns and the unknown. 1 Use dimensional analysis to convert the number of apples to the mass of apples. KNOWNS number of apples = 90 apples 12 apples = 1 dozen apples 1 dozen apples = 2.0 kg apples UNKNOWN mass of 90 apples = ? kg Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Calculate Solve for the unknown.**

Sample Problem 10.1 Calculate Solve for the unknown. 2 First identify the sequence of conversions needed to perform the calculation. number of apples ↓ dozens of apples mass of apples Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Calculate Solve for the unknown.**

Sample Problem 10.1 Calculate Solve for the unknown. 2 Write the conversion factor to convert from number of apples to dozens of apples. 12 apples 1 dozen apples Write the conversion factor to convert from dozens of apples to mass of apples. 1 dozen apples 2.0 kg apples Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Calculate Solve for the unknown.**

Sample Problem 10.1 Calculate Solve for the unknown. 2 Multiply the number of apples by these two conversion factors to get the answer in kilograms. 90 apples × × = 15 kg apples 12 apples 1 dozen apples 2.0 kg apples The units apples and dozen apples cancel, so the answer has the unit kg. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Evaluate Does the result make sense?**

Sample Problem 10.1 Evaluate Does the result make sense? 3 A dozen apples has a mass of 2.0 kg, and 90 apples is less than 10 dozen apples, so the mass should be less than 20 kg of apples (10 dozen x 2.0 kg/dozen). Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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If you know the mass of a bushel of apples and the mass of a single apple, what other information can you calculate? Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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If you know the mass of a bushel of apples and the mass of a single apple, what other information can you calculate? You can calculate the number of apples in a bushel by setting up the information you have as units with a common unit. “kg apples” will be the common unit. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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What Is a Mole? What Is a Mole? How do chemists count the number of atoms, molecules, or formula units in a substance? Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Recall that matter is composed of atoms, molecules, and ions.**

What Is a Mole? Recall that matter is composed of atoms, molecules, and ions. These particles are much, much smaller than grains of sand, and an extremely large number of them are in a small sample of a substance. Obviously, counting particles one by one is not practical. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Think about counting eggs.**

What Is a Mole? Think about counting eggs. It’s easier when the eggs are grouped into dozens. A dozen is a specified number (12) of things. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Chemists also use a unit that is a specified number of particles.**

What Is a Mole? Counting with Moles Chemists also use a unit that is a specified number of particles. The unit is called the mole. A mole (mol) of a substance is 6.02 × 1023 representative particles of that substance and is the SI unit for measuring the amount of a substance. The number of representative particles in a mole, 6.02 × 1023, is called Avogadro’s number. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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What Is a Mole? Counting with Moles The term representative particle refers to the species present in a substance, usually atoms, molecules, or formula units. The representative particle of most elements is the atom. Iron is composed of iron atoms. Helium is composed of helium atoms. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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What Is a Mole? Counting with Moles Seven elements normally exist as diatomic molecules (H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2). The representative particle of these elements and of all molecular compounds is the molecule. The molecular compounds water (H2O) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are composed of H2O and SO2 molecules, respectively. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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What Is a Mole? Counting with Moles For ionic compounds, such as calcium chloride, the representative particle is the formula unit CaCl2. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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What Is a Mole? Counting with Moles The mole allows chemists to count the number of representative particles in a substance. A mole of any substance contains Avogadro’s number of representative particles, or 6.02 × 1023 representative particles. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Representative Particles and Moles**

Interpret Data Counting with Moles The table below summarizes the relationship between representative particles and moles of substances. Representative Particles and Moles Substance Representative particle Chemical formula Representative particles in 1.00 mol Copper Atom Cu 6.02 × 1023 Atomic nitrogen N Nitrogen gas Molecule N2 Water H2O Calcium ion Ion Ca2+ Calcium fluoride Formula unit CaF2 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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CHEMISTRY & YOU What are the different ways you can measure the amount of sand in a sand sculpture? Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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CHEMISTRY & YOU What are the different ways you can measure the amount of sand in a sand sculpture? You can measure the amount of sand in a sand sculpture by count (for example, number of buckets of sand in the sculpture), by mass (which can be calculated by multiplying the number of buckets of sand by how much each bucket weighs), or by volume (which can be calculated by multiplying the number of buckets by the volume the bucket holds). Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Converting Between Number of Particles and Moles**

What Is a Mole? Converting Between Number of Particles and Moles The relationship 1 mol = 6.02 × 1023 representative particles is the basis for the following conversion factors that you can use to convert numbers of representative particles to moles and moles to number of representative particles. 1 mol 6.02 × 1023 representative particles and 6.02 × 1023 representative particles 1 mol Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Converting Number of Atoms to Moles**

Sample Problem 10.2 Converting Number of Atoms to Moles Magnesium is a light metal used in the manufacture of aircraft, automobile wheels, and tools. How many moles of magnesium is 1.25 × 1023 atoms of magnesium? Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Analyze List the known and the unknown.**

Sample Problem 10.2 Analyze List the known and the unknown. 1 The desired conversion is atoms → moles. KNOWN number of atoms = 1.25 × 1025 atoms Mg UNKNOWN moles = ? mol Mg Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Calculate Solve for the unknown.**

Sample Problem 10.2 Calculate Solve for the unknown. 2 First state the relationship between moles and number of representative particles. 1 mol Mg = 6.02 × 1023 atoms Mg Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Calculate Solve for the unknown.**

Sample Problem 10.2 Calculate Solve for the unknown. 2 Write the conversion factors you get based on this relationship. 1 mol Mg 6.02 × 1023 atoms Mg and Identify the conversion factor needed to convert from atoms to moles. 6.02 × 1023 atoms Mg 1 mol Mg Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Calculate Solve for the unknown.**

Sample Problem 10.2 Calculate Solve for the unknown. 2 Multiply the number of atoms of Mg by the conversion factor. 6.02 × 1023 atoms Mg 1 mol Mg 1.25 × 1023 atoms Mg × = mol Mg Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Evaluate Does the result make sense?**

Sample Problem 10.2 Evaluate Does the result make sense? 3 The given number of atoms (1.25 × 1023) is less than one-fourth of Avogadro’s number (6.02 × 1023), so the answer should be less than one-fourth (0.25) mol of atoms. The answer should have three significant figures. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Converting Between Number of Particles and Moles**

What Is a Mole? Converting Between Number of Particles and Moles Suppose you want to determine how many atoms are in a mole of a compound. To do this, you must know how many atoms are in a representative particle of the compound. This number is determined from the chemical formula. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Converting Between Number of Particles and Moles**

What Is a Mole? Converting Between Number of Particles and Moles The number of marbles in a dozen cups is (6 × 12) or 72 marbles. Similarly, a mole of molecules contains more than a mole of atoms. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Converting Between Number of Particles and Moles**

What Is a Mole? Converting Between Number of Particles and Moles In the formula for carbon dioxide (CO2), the subscripts show that one molecule of carbon dioxide is composed of three atoms: one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms. A mole of carbon dioxide contains Avogadro’s number of CO2 molecules. Each molecule contains three atoms, so a mole of carbon dioxide contains three times Avogadro’s number of atoms. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Converting Between Number of Particles and Moles**

What Is a Mole? Converting Between Number of Particles and Moles To find the number of atoms in a given number of moles of a compound, you must first determine the number of representative particles. To convert the number of moles of a compound to the number of representative particles (molecules or formula units), multiply the number of moles by 6.02 × 1023 representative particles/1 mol. Then multiply the number of representative particles by the number of atoms in each molecule or formula unit. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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What Is a Mole? The Size of a Mole The SI unit, the mole, is not related to the small burrowing animal of the same name. Assume that an average animal-mole is 15 cm long, 5 cm tall, and has a mass of 145 g. Based on this information, the mass of 6.02 × 1023 animal-moles is 8.73 × 1022 kg. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**The Size of a Mole What Is a Mole?**

The mass of Avogadro’s number of animal-moles is equal to more than 60 times the combined mass of Earth’s oceans. If spread over the entire surface of Earth, Avogadro’s number of animal-moles would form a layer more than 8 million animal-moles thick. If lined up end-to-end, 6.02 × 1023 animal-moles would stretch from Earth to the nearest star, Alpha Centauri, more than two million times. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Converting Moles to Number of Atoms**

Sample Problem 10.3 Converting Moles to Number of Atoms Propane is a gas used for cooking and heating. How many atoms are in 2.12 mol of propane (C3H8)? Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**moles → molecules → atoms.**

Sample Problem 10.3 Analyze List the knowns and the unknown. 1 The desired conversion is: moles → molecules → atoms. KNOWNS number of moles = 2.12 mol C3H8 1 mol C3H8 = 6.02 × 1023 molecules C3H8 1 molecule C3H8 = 11 atoms (3 carbon atoms and 8 hydrogen atoms) UNKNOWN number of atoms = ? atoms Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Calculate Solve for the unknown.**

Sample Problem 10.3 Calculate Solve for the unknown. 2 First write the conversion factor to convert from moles to molecules. 6.02 × 1023 molecules C3H8 1 mol C3H8 Remember to write the conversion factors so that the unit in the denominator cancels the unit in the numerator of the previous factor. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Calculate Solve for the unknown.**

Sample Problem 10.3 Calculate Solve for the unknown. 2 Write the conversion factor to convert from molecules to atoms. 11 atoms 1 molecule C3H8 There are 3 atoms of carbon and 8 atoms of hydrogen in 1 molecule of propane. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Calculate Solve for the unknown.**

Sample Problem 10.3 Calculate Solve for the unknown. 2 Multiply the moles of C3H8 by the conversion factors. 1 molecule C3H8 2.12 mol C3H8 × 6.02 × 1023 molecules C3H8 1 mol C3H8 × 11 atoms = 1.40 × 1023 atoms Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Evaluate Does the result make sense?**

Sample Problem 10.3 Evaluate Does the result make sense? 3 There are 11 atoms in each molecule of propane and more than 2 mol of propane, so the answer should be more than 20 times Avogadro’s number of propane molecules. The answer has three significant figures, based on the three significant figures in the given measurement. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**How is a mole similar to a dozen?**

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**How is a mole similar to a dozen? **

Both “mole” and “dozen” are quantities made of a specified number of “representative particles.” They both refer to multiple objects or particles that are now being thought of as a single object or particle with multiple parts. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**How do you determine the molar mass of an element and of a compound?**

Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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Interpret Data Remember that the atomic mass of an element (the mass of a single atom) is expressed in atomic mass units (amu). Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**The Mass of a Mole of an Element**

Molar Mass The Mass of a Mole of an Element The atomic mass of an element expressed in grams is the mass of a mole of the element. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**The Mass of a Mole of an Element**

Molar Mass The Mass of a Mole of an Element The mass of a mole of an element is its molar mass. For carbon, the molar mass is 12.0 g. For atomic hydrogen, the molar mass is 1.0 g. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**The Mass of a Mole of an Element**

Molar Mass The Mass of a Mole of an Element 1 mol of sulfur atoms = 32.1 g 1 mol of carbon atoms = 12.0 g 1 mol of iron atoms = 12.0 g This figure shows one mole of carbon, sulfur, and iron. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**The Mass of a Mole of an Element**

Molar Mass The Mass of a Mole of an Element How many atoms are contained in the molar mass of an element? The molar mass of an element contains 1 mol or 6.02 × 1023 atoms of that element. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**The Mass of a Mole of an Element**

Molar Mass The Mass of a Mole of an Element The mole can now be further defined as the amount of substance that contains the same number of representative particles as the number of atoms in 12.0 g of carbon-12. You know that 12.0 g is the molar mass of carbon-12, so 12.0 g of carbon is 1 mol of carbon atoms. Similarly, 24.3 g is the molar mass of magnesium, so 1 mol (or 6.02 × 1023 atoms of magnesium) has a mass of 24.3 g. Molar mass is the mass of 1 mol of atoms of any element. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**The Mass of a Mole of a Compound**

Molar Mass The Mass of a Mole of a Compound To find the mass of a mole of a compound, you must know the formula of the compound. A molecule of SO3 is composed of one atom of sulfur and three atoms of oxygen. You can calculate the mass of a molecule of SO3 by adding the atomic masses of the atoms making up the molecule. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**The Mass of a Mole of a Compound**

Molar Mass The Mass of a Mole of a Compound From the periodic table, the atomic mass of sulfur (S) is 32.1 amu. The mass of three atoms of oxygen is three times the atomic mass of a single oxygen atom (O): 3 × 16.0 amu = 48.0 amu. So, the molecular mass of SO3 is 32.1 amu amu = 80.1 amu. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**The Mass of a Mole of a Compound**

Molar Mass The Mass of a Mole of a Compound Now substitute the unit grams for atomic mass units to find the molar mass of SO3. 1 mol of SO3 has a mass of 80.1 g. This is the mass of 6.02 x 1023 molecules of SO3. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**The Mass of a Mole of a Compound**

Molar Mass The Mass of a Mole of a Compound To calculate the molar mass of a compound, find the number of grams of each element in one mole of the compound. Then add the masses of the elements in the compound. This method for calculating molar mass applies to any compound, molecular or ionic. The molar masses in the following slide were obtained in this way. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**The Mass of a Mole of a Compound**

Molar Mass The Mass of a Mole of a Compound 1 mol of paradichlorobenzene (C6H4Cl2) molecules (moth crystals) = g 1 mol of glucose (C6H12O6) molecules (blood sugar) = g 1 mol of water (H2O) molecules = 18.0 g Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Finding the Molar Mass of a Compound**

Sample Problem 10.4 Finding the Molar Mass of a Compound The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) provides sufficient energy to launch a rocket. What is the molar mass of hydrogen peroxide? Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Analyze List the knowns and the unknown.**

Sample Problem 10.4 Analyze List the knowns and the unknown. 1 Convert moles of atoms to grams by using conversion factors (g/mol) based on the molar mass of each element. The sum of the masses of the elements is the molar mass. KNOWNS molecular formula = H2O2 mass of 1 mol H = 1.0 g H mass of 1 mol O = 16.0 g O UNKNOWN molar mass = ? g/mol Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Calculate Solve for the unknown.**

Sample Problem 10.4 Calculate Solve for the unknown. 2 Convert moles of hydrogen and oxygen to grams of hydrogen and oxygen. 2 mol H × = 2.0 g H 1.0 g H 1 mol H 2 mol O × = 2.0 g O 16.0 g O 1 mol O One mole of H2O2 has 2 mol of H atoms and 2 mol of O atoms, so multiply the molar mass of each element by 2. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Calculate Solve for the unknown.**

Sample Problem 10.4 Calculate Solve for the unknown. 2 Add the results. mass of 1 mol H2O2 = 2.0 g H g O = 34.0 g molar mass of H2O2 = 34.0 g/mol Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Evaluate Does the result make sense?**

Sample Problem 10.4 Evaluate Does the result make sense? 3 The answer is the sum of two times the molar mass of hydrogen and oxygen (17.0 g). The answer is expressed to the tenths place because the numbers being added are expressed to the tenths place. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Complete the following analogy: **

Molar mass is to moles of a substance as atomic/molecular mass is to _____. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**Complete the following analogy: **

Molar mass is to moles of a substance as atomic/molecular mass is to one atom or molecule of a substance. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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Key Concepts Knowing how the count, mass, and volume of an item relate to a common unit allows you to convert among these units. The mole allows chemists to count the number of representative particles in a substance. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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Key Concepts The atomic mass of an element expressed in grams is the mass of a mole of the element. To calculate the molar mass of a compound, find the number of grams of each element in one mole of the compound. Then add the masses of the elements in the compound. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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Glossary Terms mole (mol): the amount of a substance that contains 6.02 × 1023 representative particles of that substance Avogadro’s number: the number of representative particles contained in one mole of a substance; equal to 6.02 × 1023 particles representative particle: the smallest unit into which a substance can be broken down without a change in composition, usually atoms, molecules, or ions molar mass: a term used to refer to the mass of a mole of any substance Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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**The Mole and Quantifying Matter**

BIG IDEA The Mole and Quantifying Matter The mole is an important measurement in chemistry. Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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END OF 6.1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. .

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