Presentation on theme: "Forensic Chemistry-Mrs. Terry-McCants. Measuring matter deals with how you can convert a count, mass and mass of something. Knowing how the count,"— Presentation transcript:
Measuring matter deals with how you can convert a count, mass and mass of something. Knowing how the count, mass and volume of an item relate to a common unit allows you to convert among these units. For example: 1 dozen apples/12 apples 1 kg Apples/ 2.2 lbs. apples
A mole of a substance is 6.02 x 10^23 particles Of a substance. A mole is the SI unit for measuring the amount of a substance. Avogadro’s number is the number of representative particles in a mole: 6.02 x 10^23 The mole allows chemists to count the number of representative particles in a substance.
Magnesium is a light metal used in the manufacture of aircraft, automobile wheels, and tools. How many moles of magnesium is 1.25 x 10^23 atoms of Mg? Steps: 1. Analyze: List the knowns and the unknowns 2. Calculate: Solve for the unknowns. 3. Evaluate: Does this make sense? 4. Refer to pg. 309 in your textbk.
Analysis: Known= 1.25 x 10^23 atoms of Mg Unknown= moles= ? Mol Mg Calculate: Solve for the unknown and set up as a unit conversion. Equivalent:1 mol Mg = 6.02 x 10^23 atoms Mg 1.25 x 10^23 atoms Mg x 1 mole Mg 6.02 x 10^23 atoms of Mg Ans: 0.208 mol Mg
Problem 1 How many moles is 2.80 x 10^24 atoms of silicon?
Problem #2 How many moles is 2.17 x 10^23 representative particles of bromine?
How do you convert the mass of a substance to the number of moles of the substance? Ans: Use the molar mass of an element or compound to convert between the mass of a substance and the moles of the substance. Example: Molar mass and 1 mole 1 MoleMolar mass
Known: # moles= 9.45 mol Al 2 O 3 Unknown: mass= ? g Al 2 O 3 Steps: 1. Determine the mass of 1 mole of Al 2 O 3 2. Identify the conversion factor relating moles of Al 2 O 3 to grams of Al 2 O 3. 3. Multiply the given number of moles by the conversion factor. Refer to p.318 in text sample problem 10.5.
Find the mass in grams of 2.50 moles of iron II hydroxide.
The empirical formula of a compound gives the lowest whole-number ratio of the atoms or moles of the elements in a compound. The percent composition of a compound can be used to calculate the empirical formula of that compound.
Steps: 1. Analyze by listing your knowns & unknowns. 2. Convert the % composition of each element to the moles of each element. 3. Divide each molar quantity by the smaller number of moles to get 1mol for the element with the smaller number of moles. 4. Multiply each part of the ratio by the smallest whole number that will convert both subscripts to whole numbers.
Calculate the empirical formula of each of the following: A. 94.1% O, 5.9% H B. 67.6% Hg, 10.8% S, 21.6% O
Steps: 1. Calculate the empirical formula mass. 2. Divide the molar mass by the empirical formula mass. 3. Multiply the formula subscripts by this value.
Calculate the molecular formula of a compound whose molar mass is 60 g/mol and empirical formula is CH4N. Try #41 & #42 p.333 for additional practice.