Abnormal Behavior The medical model What is abnormal behavior? –Deviant –Dysfuntional/Maladaptive –Distressing
Psychodiagnosis: The Classification of Disorders American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – 4th ed.rev. (DSM – IV-TR)
Psychological Disorders Not uncommon –26% in a given year, 46% in a lifetime. Cultural –What is accepted in one culture, may not be in another Not Dangerous –Most people who suffer from a disorder are not dangerous.
Five Axes Axis I – Clinical Syndromes Axis II – Personality Disorders or Mental Retardation Axis III – General Medical Conditions Axis IV – Psychosocial and Environmental Problems Axis V – Global Assessment of Functioning
Important Terms Diagnosis –Identification of a disorder Prognosis –Indication of the outcome of a disorder Etiology –Apparent cause or developmental history of a disorder.
Anxiety Disorders Generalized anxiety disorder –“free-floating anxiety” Phobic disorder –Specific focus of fear Panic disorder and agoraphobia Obsessive compulsive disorder –Obsessions –Compulsions Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Etiology of Anxiety Disorders Biological factors –Genetic predisposition –GABA circuits in the brain Conditioning and learning –Acquired through classical conditioning –Maintained through operant conditioning Cognitive factors –Judgments of perceived threat Stress/Adverse experiences—a precipitator