Threat of New Entrants Bargaining Power of Suppliers Bargaining Power of Customers Rivalry among Existing Competitors Threat of Substitute Products Competitive forces model by Michael Porter
Competitive Strategies Cost leadership strategy. Product differentiation strategy. Innovation strategy: Finding new way of doing business. Alliance strategy: Establish alliances with customer, suppliers, competitors, other company. Growth strategy: expanding, diversifying, integrating.
Strategic Roles for Information Systems Improving business operations Promoting business innovation Locking in customers and suppliers –Interorganizational IS, EDI, automatic inventory replenishment system Creating switching costs –make customers dependent on the continued use of innovative IS. Raising barriers to entry –discourage competitors from entering a market
The Value Chain and Strategic IS It views a firm as a series, or chain, or network of basic activities that add value to its products and services, and thus add a margin of value to the firm. –Margin is the value of the firm’s products and services less their costs, as perceived by the firm’s customers. Support activities: –Administration, human resource management,etc. Primary activities: –Inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing, etc.
The Value Chain Administrative Coordination & Support Services Human Resource Management Technology Development Procurement of Resources Inbound Logistics Inbound Logistics Operations Outbound Logistics Outbound Logistics Marketing and Sales Marketing and Sales Customer Service Customer Service Competitive Advantage
Business Process Reengineering (BPR) Often used to react to systems that can no longer function adequately in the current business environment of the firm BPR is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business process to achieve dramatic improvements, such as cost, quality, service, and speed. Example: Ford Motor Accounts Payable
E-Commerce B2C –Virtual storefront, catalog, ordering processing –Online customer support, secure payment B2B –Whole sale and supply –Integrating a company’s internal systems with those of its suppliers, partners, and customers.
Interorganizational System (IOS) These link two or more firms so that they function as a single system to accomplish a common goal Generate internal efficiency in addition to interorganizational efficiency Provides customers with unique product features, reduced search-related costs, and raises the customer’s switching costs
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Adheres to Standard Formats Suppliers The Firm Request for a price quote Price quote Purchase order Acknowledge P.O. receipt Invoice
CRM (customer relationship management) CRM (customer relationship management) is an information industry term for methodologies, software, and usually Internet capabilities that help an enterprise manage customer relationships in an organized way. –For example, an enterprise might build a database about its customers that described relationships in sufficient detail so that management, salespeople, people providing service, and perhaps the customer directly could access information, match customer needs with product plans and offerings, remind customers of service requirements, know what other products a customer had purchased, and so forth.
Major Functions of CRM Helping an enterprise to enable its marketing departments to identify and target their best customers, manage marketing campaigns with clear goals and objectives, and generate quality leads for the sales team. Assisting the organization to improve telesales, account, and sales management by optimizing information shared by multiple employees, and streamlining existing processes (for example, taking orders using mobile devices) Allowing the formation of individualized relationships with customers, with the aim of improving customer satisfaction and maximizing profits; identifying the most profitable customers and providing them the highest level of service. Providing employees with the information and processes necessary to know their customers, understand their needs, and effectively build relationships between the company, its customer base, and distribution partners.
Targeted Marketing Community: People in specific communities –Online chat, Blogging, special interest groups Content: Advertising banner placed on web pages. Context: Advertising appears only in web pages that are relevant to the product. Demographic Online behaviors: cookies
Push/Pull Internet push marketing: –Email marketing –Web page personalization Internet pull marketing –Product web page
ERP (enterprise resource planning) ERP is an integrated system that helps a manufacturer or other business manage the important parts of its business, including product planning, parts purchasing, maintaining inventories, interacting with suppliers, providing customer service, and tracking orders. ERP can also include application modules for the finance and human resources aspects of a business. Typically, an ERP system uses or is integrated with a relational database system. –An integrated system