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Adapted from Dr. Dewey Caron PowerPoint

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1 Adapted from Dr. Dewey Caron PowerPoint
Honey Bee Biology Adapted from Dr. Dewey Caron PowerPoint

2 What’s in a name? Classification system Kingdom - Animal Phylum
2 of interest are.. Chordata – backboned vertebrate animals - includes humans There are several major and minor phyla named. Comparison here is of vertebrates (including humans) and invertebrate (including insects) animals. Arthropoda – jointed limbed invertebrates that possess an exoskeleton - includes insects

3 What’s in a name? Classification system Kingdom - Animal
Phylum - Arthropoda Shared Arthropod characteristics are…. 1. Segmented bodies of 2/3 regions 2. Paired segmented appendages 3. Exoskeleton 4. Bilateral symmetry 5. Central alimentary tube 6. Open circulatory system 7. Sexual reproduction In addition to Phylum name, the characteristics shared by arthropods (spiders, ticks, mites, crustaceans, centipedes, sowbugs, millipedes and insects) are these 7 major features.

4 What’s in a name? Classification system Kingdom - Animal
Phylum - Arthropoda Class Several Arthropod classes…Class insecta have.. Insects (including honey bee) are one class of arthropod. All insects have these 4 characteristics that help distinguish them from their close relatives. 3 body regions One pair antennae Three pairs of legs 1 or 2 pairs of wings usually

5 What’s in a name? Classification system Kingdom - Animal
Phylum - Arthropoda Class - Insecta Order 30 + Insect orders – 5 largest are... The 5 major insect orders are given with each having 70,000 + named species. One is the order Hymenoptera that includes the bees and their closest insect relatives the ants, other bees and wasps. Coleoptera = beetles Lepidoptera = butterflies & moths Hymenoptera = bees, wasps & ants Diptera = flies Heteroptera = bugs, aphids, etc

6 Insect Sociality EUSOCIAL Cooperative care of young
Pheromones or trophyllaxis Reproductive division of labor Caste system Overlap of generations caring for young Often elaborate/defended nests Eusocial or truely social has these three common features.

7 The 3 adults - Queen Reproductive female 2 functions 1. Lay eggs
2. Produce chemicals Now a bit more depth for the 3 adults found in honey bee colony [we are modifying word honey bee by adding adult stage name such as queen honey bee, worker honey bee and drone honeyb ee] Bk Educ Service Photo

8 The three adults - Drone
Male sex – not caste Mate with new queen (= virgins) Perhaps contribute to “normalcy”?

9 Hive Bee “Work” Includes… cleaning nursing nectar ripening
& honey storage pack pollen secrete wax guarding Hive bees of 16+ days of age are usually involved. Some might also be leaving their colony to begin orientation flights to fix exact hive location in preparation for field activities.

10 What is a Honey Bee? Answer … one of three adult forms each
Recap of modifying names of honey bee – followed by next panel. Answer … one of three adult forms each with own tasks (Division of labor) queen honey bee, worker honey bee drone honey bee

11 What is a Honey Bee? ►Answer ….. one of three adult forms each
with own tasks (Division of labor) ►Answer worker bees who perform different tasks according to age and gland development Hive bees such as cleaning worker bee, nurse bee, nectar ripening bee, wax secreting bee, guard bee Field bees foraging for nectar/pollen/water/propolis BUT ALSO…… … one of three development stages (=brood)

12 Bee Brood Summary Figure 4-9
Illustration from Dade is textbook Fig 4-9. Figure 4-9

13 Sex/Caste Differentiation
Fertilized egg Unfertilized egg Fertilized egg Heavy feeding Heavy feeding of Light feeding of of royal jelly brood food, then brood food, then honey, and pollen honey, and pollen Queen ovaries Worker ovaries In graph form – 2 egg types result in male drone and female and then differences in feeding of royal jelly produces queen with well developed ovaries while light feeding (brood jelly) and switch of diet to honey and pollen yields worker. Queen develops vertically and worker horizontally but this is only a signal to workers caring for brood – if removed and raise in incubator queens can normally develop if horizontal and workers if vertical. Cornell collection

14 Communication Honey bees eusocial Prof von Frisch discovered their
communication basics A bee discovers a food source…. she returns home to tell her sisters where it is, how far, & how good ! Communication essential for social existence. German Nobel prize winning scientist was initial scientist to discover the significance of dance language behaviors and decode what the movements meant. D.L. with odor, taste, sound and behaviors codifies basic information to pass from dancer to recruit.

15 Round Dance Quick short steps in narrow circles On beeswax comb
Food close Bee in excited manner goes in circle one direction and then shifts to circle in opposite direction. Information is not precise regarding distance direction but odor and taste clues as well as dance vigor and time spent dancing impart adequate information to enable naive recruits to find and exploit new resource. Odor & taste clues Richness clues

16 Wagtail Dance Bee makes ½ circle, straight run while waggling
Abdomen then ½ circle again Waggling or wag-tail dance is more specific. It gives precise direction and distance information + odor, taste and richness clues (latter three similar in both dances). See next panel for interpretation. Distance Direction Odor & taste clues Richness clues

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