Presentation on theme: "Adapted from Dr. Dewey Caron PowerPoint"— Presentation transcript:
1 Adapted from Dr. Dewey Caron PowerPoint Honey Bee BiologyAdapted from Dr. Dewey Caron PowerPoint
2 What’s in a name? Classification system Kingdom - Animal Phylum 2 of interest are..Chordata – backboned vertebrate animals- includes humansThere are several major and minor phyla named. Comparison here is of vertebrates (including humans) and invertebrate (including insects) animals.Arthropoda – jointed limbed invertebratesthat possess an exoskeleton - includes insects
3 What’s in a name? Classification system Kingdom - Animal Phylum - ArthropodaShared Arthropod characteristics are….1. Segmented bodies of 2/3 regions2. Paired segmented appendages3. Exoskeleton4. Bilateral symmetry5. Central alimentary tube6. Open circulatory system7. Sexual reproductionIn addition to Phylum name, the characteristics shared by arthropods (spiders, ticks, mites, crustaceans, centipedes, sowbugs, millipedes and insects) are these 7 major features.
4 What’s in a name? Classification system Kingdom - Animal Phylum - ArthropodaClassSeveral Arthropod classes…Class insecta have..Insects (including honey bee) are one class of arthropod. All insects have these 4 characteristics that help distinguish them from their close relatives.3 body regionsOne pair antennaeThree pairs of legs1 or 2 pairs of wings usually
5 What’s in a name? Classification system Kingdom - Animal Phylum - ArthropodaClass - InsectaOrder30 + Insect orders – 5 largest are...The 5 major insect orders are given with each having 70,000 + named species. One is the order Hymenoptera that includes the bees and their closest insect relatives the ants, other bees and wasps.Coleoptera = beetlesLepidoptera = butterflies & mothsHymenoptera = bees, wasps & antsDiptera = fliesHeteroptera = bugs, aphids, etc
6 Insect Sociality EUSOCIAL Cooperative care of young Pheromones or trophyllaxisReproductive division of laborCaste systemOverlap of generations caring for youngOften elaborate/defended nestsEusocial or truely social has these three common features.
7 The 3 adults - Queen Reproductive female 2 functions 1. Lay eggs 2. Produce chemicalsNow a bit more depth for the 3 adults found in honey bee colony [we are modifying word honey bee by adding adult stage name such as queen honey bee, worker honey bee and drone honeyb ee]Bk Educ Service Photo
8 The three adults - Drone Male sex – not casteMate with new queen(= virgins)Perhaps contribute to“normalcy”?
9 Hive Bee “Work” Includes… cleaning nursing nectar ripening & honey storagepack pollensecrete waxguardingHive bees of 16+ days of age are usually involved. Some might also be leaving their colony to begin orientation flights to fix exact hive location in preparation for field activities.
10 What is a Honey Bee? Answer … one of three adult forms each Recap of modifying names of honey bee – followed by next panel.Answer … one of three adult forms eachwith own tasks (Division of labor)queen honey bee, worker honey beedrone honey bee
11 What is a Honey Bee? ►Answer ….. one of three adult forms each with own tasks (Division of labor)►Answer worker bees who perform differenttasks according to age and gland developmentHive bees such as cleaning worker bee, nurse bee,nectar ripening bee, wax secreting bee, guard beeField bees foraging for nectar/pollen/water/propolisBUT ALSO……… one of three development stages(=brood)
12 Bee Brood Summary Figure 4-9 Illustration from Dade is textbook Fig 4-9.Figure 4-9
13 Sex/Caste Differentiation Fertilized egg Unfertilized egg Fertilized eggHeavy feeding Heavy feeding of Light feeding ofof royal jelly brood food, then brood food, thenhoney, and pollen honey, and pollenQueen ovariesWorker ovariesIn graph form – 2 egg types result in male drone and female and then differences in feeding of royal jelly produces queen with well developed ovaries while light feeding (brood jelly) and switch of diet to honey and pollen yields worker. Queen develops vertically and worker horizontally but this is only a signal to workers caring for brood – if removed and raise in incubator queens can normally develop if horizontal and workers if vertical.Cornell collection
14 Communication Honey bees eusocial Prof von Frisch discovered their communication basicsA bee discovers a food source….she returns home to tell her sisterswhere it is, how far, & how good !Communication essential for social existence. German Nobel prize winning scientist was initial scientist to discover the significance of dance language behaviors and decode what the movements meant. D.L. with odor, taste, sound and behaviors codifies basic information to pass from dancer to recruit.
15 Round Dance Quick short steps in narrow circles On beeswax comb Food closeBee in excited manner goes in circle one direction and then shifts to circle in opposite direction. Information is not precise regarding distance direction but odor and taste clues as well as dance vigor and time spent dancing impart adequate information to enable naive recruits to find and exploit new resource.Odor & taste cluesRichness clues
16 Wagtail Dance Bee makes ½ circle, straight run while waggling Abdomen then ½circle againWaggling or wag-tail dance is more specific. It gives precise direction and distance information + odor, taste and richness clues (latter three similar in both dances). See next panel for interpretation.DistanceDirectionOdor & taste cluesRichness clues