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Ch 28-4 – Insects and Their Relatives. Uniramians – Centipedes, millipedes and insects Characterized by one pair of antennae and appendages that don’t.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 28-4 – Insects and Their Relatives. Uniramians – Centipedes, millipedes and insects Characterized by one pair of antennae and appendages that don’t."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 28-4 – Insects and Their Relatives

2 Uniramians – Centipedes, millipedes and insects Characterized by one pair of antennae and appendages that don’t branch

3 Centipede and Millipede Wormlike body Many leg-bearing segments centipede millipede

4 Centipedes Carnivores Poison claws in head Eat arthropods, earthworms, snakes, mice Have ONE pair of legs per segment (not necessarily 100 legs!) Have venomous bites against predators

5 Cenitpede eating tarantula

6 Centipede poison claw

7 Centiped protecting hatchling

8 Millipede Two pair of legs per segment Herbivores Feed on dead and dying plant material Protect themselves by rolling into a ball or use “nasty chemicals” to dissuade their predators

9 Millipedes

10 Millipede Many legs!!

11 Millipede

12 Millipede eating

13 Protection

14 Insects Have 3-part body 3 pairs of legs attached to thorax

15 Feeding 3 pairs of appendages used as mouthparts One is the mandible Amazing modifications of the mouthparts

16 mouthparts


18 Other modifications for feeding – mosquitos saliva – anticoagulant

19 Bees legs and bodies are covered in hair for collecting pollen


21 Bees have glands in abdomen that secrete wax to build bee hives for food storage and larvae nurseries Bee saliva changes nectar into honey

22 movement Three pairs of walking legs are greatly varied Many insects have highly specialized legs for jumping and capturing prey



25 flight Flying ability varies greatly Butterflies have limited manoeuvrability

26 Certain flies, bees and moths can fly extremely well

27 Thorax is filled with large muscles for wings

28 Adaptations for flight Enlarged thorax for muscles Oversized mitochondria supply muscle cells with energy Special blood supply to wing muscles keep muscles warm (sometimes warmer than outside) for optimal efficiency

29 Clear wing butterfly

30 Insect colonies Collections of individuals of the same species that live together SOCIETIES are colonies where individuals are DEPENDENT on the others for survival

31 ANTS! Ant Colony

32 Termites, wasps, bees and ants form societies Have division of labour Different individuals (called castes) will have specialized bodies to perform their task in the society

33 Examples of castes: reproductive females (queens) reproductive males Workers warriors Termite Queen  workers


35  Termite soldier Worker 


37 Reproductive males ONLY fertilize the eggs In BEE SOCIETIES, the queen mates with one or more males only ONCE. She receives all the sperm she needs in that mating The successful reproductive male then dies All unsuccessful reproductive males are turned out of the hive, and soon die

38 Workers do all the work for the hive Bee workers are all female and are able to do all jobs (except reproduce) Ant and termite workers are specialized for specific jobs


40 Insect Communication Non-social insects communicate mainly to find mate only Cricket males rub their forelegs together Male cicadas buzz by vibrating a membrane on their abdomen

41 Male fireflies produce a series of light flashes The wingless females (glow worms) flash back their reply, and the males will find them (sometimes another genus will mimic this signal and prey on the expectant male)

42 Many female moths produce pheromones to attract their male

43 Social insects have more complicated communication systems Pheromones are often used Ex. Ants drag their abdomen all the way home from a food source to leave a trail for other ants to find the food

44 The Queen Bee produces “queen substance” that prevents other females being able to lay eggs When queen substance is low in the hive, the worker bees will feed a few female larvae a special diet which causes these larvae to develop into queens

45 Worker bees “dance” to tell other workers where they found food Two basic dances: the round dance and the waggle dance



48 The Round Dance The bee walks in a circle, then retraces that circle in the opposite direction Means that food is within 50 meters of the hive Good quality food will be indicated by more frequent changes of direction The kind of flower found is determined by smelling the messenger

49 The Waggle Dance The bee wiggles her abdomen while walking in a straight line She circles around and wiggles back up the same line She will then circle around on the other side of the line, and repeats

50 The waggle dance means that the food source found is more than 50 meters away from the hive The direction of the straight line is the direction the other bees must travel away from the hive to find the food



53 1 million species of insects have been identified so far, which is about ½ of all animals known to science Sizes could vary from.25mm to 50 cm Many male insects have appendages called claspers, which help them stay in position during mating.


55 Centipedes

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