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Network Monitoring for Internet Traffic Engineering Jennifer Rexford AT&T Labs – Research Florham Park, NJ 07932

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Presentation on theme: "Network Monitoring for Internet Traffic Engineering Jennifer Rexford AT&T Labs – Research Florham Park, NJ 07932"— Presentation transcript:

1 Network Monitoring for Internet Traffic Engineering Jennifer Rexford AT&T Labs – Research Florham Park, NJ 07932


3 Tracking the AT&T IP Backbone Traffic –Modem records for each WorldNet dial connection –SNMP link and loss statistics for every link –Flow-level measurement on selective peering links –Packet-level measurement on two edge links Performance –Active probes of performance for each pair of cities Network state –Configuration file from each router –Fault data from each router (alarms and polling) –BGP routing tables for routers connecting to peers –BGP update messages from two core routers

4 Outline ISP backbone networks –Service provider backbone –Routing protocols Network model for traffic engineering –Topology, capacity, and routing configuration –Destinations reachable via neighboring domains Populating the model –Static snapshot (config files, forwarding tables) –Real-time view (OSPF monitor, iBGP monitor) Integration in traffic engineering tool

5 Internet Service Provider Backbone modem banks, business customers, web/e-mail servers neighboring providers Gateway routers Backbone routers Access routers

6 Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) ASes exchange info about who they can reach Update messages exchanged over a TCP connection Local policies for path selection (which to use?) Local policies for route propagation (who to tell?) Policies configured by the AS’s network operator 1 23 “I can reach” “I can reach via AS 1” flow of traffic AS = Autonomous System

7 Interior Gateway Protocol (Within an AS) Routers flood information to learn the topology Routers determine “next hop” to reach other routers Path selection based on link weights (shortest path) Link weights configured by the network operator 3 2 2 1 1 3 1 4 5 3 Path cost = 8

8 Traffic Engineering in an ISP Backbone Network topology –Connectivity and capacity of routers and links Configurable policies for resource allocation –Path selection, buffer management, and link scheduling Traffic demands –Expected/offered load between points in the network Performance objective –Balanced load, low latency, service level agreements … Question: Given the topology and traffic demands, which configuration parameters should be used? This talk focuses on the topology and configuration part.

9 Our Approach: Measure, Model, and Control Monitor the network to collect the various inputs Model the network-wide path-selection process Build tools on top of the data and the model Topology Routing configuration BGP updates Offered traffic Distributed routing protocols Flow of traffic through the network

10 Network Topology Router –Loopback IP address (e.g., –IP addresses of interfaces Link –Network address (e.g., ) –Capacity (e.g., 10 Mbps, 622 Mbps)

11 Core and Edge Links Core link –OSPF weight per interface –OSPF area Edge link –Set of destination prefixes 1024 512 area 9 {,}

12 Populating the Model: Daily Snapshot Router configuration files –Router name, OS version, IP address, running processes –Individual interfaces and their location in the router –Set of commands applied against the router Processing the configuration data –Parsing the commands applied to each router –Identifying all of the outgoing interfaces at the router –Finding each pair of interfaces that forms a core link Populates part of the model –Router, links, and link capacities –Identification of edge and core links –OSPF weights and areas for core links

13 Example: Router Configuration File Language with hundreds of different commands Cisco IOS is a de facto standard config language Sections for interfaces, routing protocols, filters, etc. version 12.0 hostname MyRouter ! interface Loopback0 ip address ! interface Serial9/1/0/4:0 description MyT1Customer bandwidth 1536 ip address ip access-group 10 in ! interface POS6/0 description MyBackboneLink ip address ip ospf cost 1024 ! router ospf network area 9 network area 9 ! access-list 10 permit access-list 10 permit ip route Serial9/1/0/4:0

14 Daily Snaphot: Continued Router forwarding tables –Next-hop interface(s) for each destination prefix Processing the forwarding tables –Identify next hops associated with edge interfaces –Ignore entries where next hop is a core interface –Extract the associated destination prefixes Populates part of the model –Set of prefixes reachable via each edge link –Or, set of edge links associated with each prefix

15 Example: Forwarding Table (“show ip cef”) Prefix Next Hop Interface POS7/0 POS6/0 POS6/0 POS7/0 ATM5/0.1 POS7/0 POS6/0 ATM5/0.1 POS6/0 POS6/0 POS0/3

16 Locating the Set of Egress Links for Prefix d d i k Prefix d: exit links {i, k} Table entry: (d, i) Table entry: (d, k)

17 Populating the Model: Real-Time View OSPF monitor –Up/down status of routers and their interfaces –OSPF weight and area for each interface Acquiring the real-time view –Software router (GateD) that implements OSPF routing –Physical adjacency with an operational router –Copy of all flooded link-state advertisements Route monitor OSPF messages Router Work by A. Shaikh and A. Greenberg

18 Real-Time View (Continued) iBGP monitor –Destination prefixes associated with each edge link –Frequency of changes, attributes of routes, etc. Acquiring the real-time view –Software router (Zebra) that implements BGP routing –Logical adjacency (TCP) with operational routers –“Best route” for each prefix from each vantage point Route monitor BGP messages Router BGP messages Work with T. Griffin and D. Caldwell

19 Toolkit for Traffic Engineerng Other components of traffic engineering –Traffic measurements at destination prefix level –Path computation based on OSPF weights/areas –Network visualization to display flow of traffic –Optimization algorithm for selecting good weights Network model Traffic model Routing model Visualization Optimization

20 Combining With Traffic Measurements Color/size of node: proportional to traffic to this router ( high to low) Color/size of link: proportional to traffic carried ( high to low) Peering point

21 Conclusions Summary –Network model for traffic engineering (TE) –Populating the model from existing data sets –Real-time monitoring of OSPF and BGP messages –Integration of the network model in a TE tool Ongoing work –Extensions to support changes to BGP policies –Analysis of the real-time OSPF and BGP data –Improved support for measurement on routers Driving goal –Accurate, timely, network-wide view of topology, routing, and traffic data

22 To Learn More... Network overview and routing model –“Traffic engineering for IP networks” ( Measurement infrastructure –"Measurement and analysis of IP network usage and behavior” ( Topology and configuration –“IP network configuration for intradomain traffic engineering” ( Traffic demands –“Deriving traffic demands for operational IP networks: Methodology and experiences” ( OSPF monitor –“An OSPF topology server: Design and evaluation”

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