9 Toxic Organic Water Pollutants OrganicsSources: factories, homes, farms, lawns, and gardens.Inorganic (acids and heavy metals, such as lead and mercury)Sources: Industry
10 Other Types of Pollution: Sediment Sediment washed from the land has profound effects on the chemical and physical nature of ecosystems.Such changes have large impacts on aquatic organisms and humans who depend on them.
12 21.2 Groundwater Pollution May be heavily contaminated in numerous industrialized nations by:industrial waste pitsseptic tanksoil wellsLandfillsagricultural chemicals, notably pesticides and fertilizer.
13 Effects of Groundwater Pollution Thousands of chemicals may be found in a nation’s groundwater.Many of them are potentially harmful to human health, causing problems for:unborn children:miscarriagebirth defectspremature infant deathadults:rashesneurological problems
14 Cleaning Up Groundwater Groundwater moves slowly and takes many years to cleanse itself.Preventing groundwater pollution is essential to creating a sustainable water supply.Equally important are efforts to clean up groundwater supplies already contaminated by potentially toxic chemicals.
15 21.3 Ocean Pollution The oceans are polluted by: chemicals spilled into them directlypollutants washedfrom the lands andtransported tothem by riversFIGURE 10:An oil-covered duckCourtesy of John S. Lough/Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council
16 FIGURE 12: Oil spills from 1970 to 2006 Data courtesy of International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Ltd., ITOPF
21 21.4 Water Pollution Control Reducing water pollution requires efforts on two levels:those that capture wastes emitted from various sources (the so-called end-of-pipe solutions)those that prevent waste production and pollution
22 Legislative ControlsLegislation to address water pollution has focused on point sources—primarily factories and sewage treatment plants.Gains made in controlling such sources have often been offset by increasing levels of pollution from nonpoint sources such as:city streetslawnsfarm fields
23 Controlling Nonpoint Pollution In the United States, efforts to control nonpoint water pollution are still in their infancy.They are gaining popularity because they are often economical solutions that offer other benefits as well.The United States has focused more on groundwater pollution than nonpoint water pollution because groundwater is an important source of drinking water.
24 FIGURE 16: Schematic of sewage treatment Stormwater drainage systems
26 Sustainable Solutions for Water Pollution Measures that will collectively serve to reduce our production of water pollutants include:reducing consumptionrecycling materialsreducing industrial waste and municipal sewageusing renewable resourcesstabilizing population growth