2 Questions for Today:What are examples of point and nonpoint pollution sources for water?What are the Major Types of Water Pollutants and Diseases transmitted in Water?What are two measurements used to determine clean waters in lakes and rivers?Compare and Contrast Oligotrophic Lakes with Eutrophic Lakes.
3 Questions for Today: What major sources of pollution for ground water? What laws are in effect for our drinking water?What are major sources of pollution for ocean water?
4 Sources of Water Pollution Remember:Point sources are pollutions sources where you can identify the sole polluter and/or pollutantNonpoint sources are sources where you cannot identify the polluter or the pollutant can come from many anonymous sources.
5 Top Three polluters Agricultural Activities Industrial Wastes Mining Sediment eroded from agricultural landsFertilizers and pesticidesIndustrial WastesOrganic and inorganic wastesHeatMiningErosion of Sediments and Toxic Chemicals
6 Top areas of nonpoint pollution Parking LotsPrevent absorption of water back into the water tableIncreases flooding and erosionPlasticPolymers are forever!
7 Major Water Pollutants Aside from the different chemicals, inorganic and organic, that enter our water supply, infectious disease is one of the major water pollutants.Identified over 500 types of diseasesThe World Health Organization (WHO)Each year, approximately 3.2 million people die prematurely from water-borne infectious diseases.1 child every 18 seconds die due to diarrhea alone!
10 Water Quality Two of the biggest measures for water quality are: Dissolved OxygenAmount of Oxygen ready to use in the waterBiochemical Oxygen DemandAmount of Oxygen needed for organic growth.When both measurements are graphed we get a oxygen sag curve.
13 Oligotrophic vs Eutrophic Oligotrophic lakes are lakes with low nutrient, clear water, BIG fish, and Cold, High DO, low BODEutrophic Lakes high nutrient, murky/brackish water, small fish and bugs, warm, Low DO, High BODOligotrophic lakes -> Eutrophic LakesCultural Eutrophism
14 Major sources of groundwater pollution Remember that half of the US Drinking water comes from groundwater sources like aquifers.Common Pollutants include:HydrocarbonsInorganic ChemicalsOrganic Solvents
15 Major Sources of GW Pollution The ProblemOnce contaminant hits the water supply, the GW is essentially ruined.Groundwater flows slower than surface water so it cannot naturally biodegrade the pollutant as well as a river or stream.
18 Laws protecting our Water U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974Requires the EPA to establish a Maximum Contaminant Level for any contaminant entering our water.Clean Water ActMany provisions guarding our water suppliesRequires treatment facilities for municipal water and regulates the amount of pollutants entering our water.
19 Pollution in the OceanMost of the Open Oceans are considered “clean” due to the vastness and the deep waters.Most of the pollution problems are located closer to the coastlines and shores due to agricultural runoff and access to sunlight.
20 Industry Nitrogen oxides from autos and smokestacks, toxic chemicals, and heavy metals in effluents flow into bays and estuaries.Cities Toxic metals and oil from streets and parking lots pollute waters; sewage adds nitrogen and phosphorus.Urban sprawlBacteria and viruses from sewers and septic tanks contaminate shellfish beds and close beaches; runoff of fertilizer from lawns adds nitrogen and phosphorus.Construction sitesSediments are washed into waterways, choking fish and plants, clouding waters, and blocking sunlight.FarmsRunoff of pesticides, manure, and fertilizers adds toxins and excess nitrogen and phosphorus.Red tidesExcess nitrogen causes explosive growth of toxic microscopic algae, poisoning fish and marine mammals.Closed shellfish bedsClosed beachOxygen-depleted zoneFigure 20.15Natural capital degradation: residential areas, factories, and farms all contribute to the pollution of coastal waters and bays. According to the U.N. Environment Programme, coastal water pollution costs the world $16 billion annually—more than $30,000 a minute—due to ill health and premature death. Question: What are three changes you could make in your lifestyle that might help to prevent this pollution?Toxic sedimentsChemicals and toxic metals contaminate shellfish beds, kill spawning fish, and accumulate in the tissues of bottom feeders.Oxygen-depleted zone Sedimentation and algae overgrowth reduce sunlight, kill beneficial sea grasses, use up oxygen, and degrade habitat.Healthy zoneClear, oxygen-rich waters promote growth of plankton and sea grasses, and support fish.Fig , p. 548
21 Ocean PollutionAside from Agricultural, a major pollutant is oil that is leaked off of rigs and tanker ships and industrial and city runoff.The Exxon Valdez crash in 1989Cost roughly 6.5 billion dollarsThe Prestige Crash in 2002The BP Oil SpillIndustrial Runofff accounts for 37% of the oil pollution in the ocean
22 Gulf of Mexico and Pollution The Gulf Coast has some of the worst water in the nation due to it’s low DO count.Why?How many states drain waste into the Gulf of Mexico