Figure 1.1 Interaction between applications and the operating system.
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1 Figure 1.1 Interaction between applications and the operating system. 1.10 Application BasesFigure 1.1 Interaction between applications and the operating system.
2 1.12.1 Core Operating System Components User interaction with operating systemOften, through special application called a shellKernelSoftware that contains core components of operating systemTypical operating system components include:Processor schedulerMemory managerI/O managerInterprocess communication (IPC) managerFile system manager
3 1.12.2 Operating System Goals Users expect certain properties of operating systemsEfficiencyRobustnessScalabilityExtensibilityPortabilitySecurityProtectionInteractivityUsability
5 Figure 1.4 Layers of the THE operating system. Layered ArchitectureFigure 1.4 Layers of the THE operating system.
6 1.13.3 Microkernel Architecture Figure 1.5 Microkernel operating system architecture.
7 1.13.4 Networked and Distributed Operating Systems Figure 1.6 Client/server networked operating system model.
8 What is the difference between a purely layered architecture and a microkernel architecture? Which of the OS goals correspond to the following characteristics?Users can’t access services or information w/o authorizationOS run on a variety of hardware configurationsSystem performance increases steadily when additional MEM and processors are added.The OS supports devices that were not available when it was designed.Hardware failure does not necessarily cause the system to fail.
9 Chapter 2 – Hardware and Software Concepts Outline Introduction 2.2 Evolution of Hardware Devices 2.3 Hardware Components Mainboards Processors Clocks Memory Hierarchy Main Memory Secondary Storage Buses Direct Memory Access (DMA) Peripheral Devices 2.4 Hardware Support for Operating Systems Processor Timers and Clocks
10 Chapter 2 – Hardware and Software Concepts Outline (continued) Bootstrapping Plug and Play 2.5 Caching and Buffering 2.6 Software overview 2.7 Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) 2.8 Compiling, Linking and Loading 2.9 Firmware 2.10 Middleware
11 Objectives After reading this chapter, you should understand: hardware components that must be managed by an operating system.how hardware has evolved to support operating system functions.how to optimize performance of various hardware devices.the notion of an application programming interface (API).the process of compilation, linking and loading.
12 T/F?1. OS is a resource manager, it can manage the following resources:processorsmemorysecondary storage (such as hard disks)other I/O devicesprocessesthreadsfilesdatabases2. Most operating systems are independent from the hardware configurations, because they use device drivers to perform device-specific I/O operations.3. Registers are high-speed memory located on processors. Data need to be loaded to registers before processors can operate on them.4. What is a port ? What is an I/O channel?
13 2.3.8 Direct Memory Access (DMA) DMA improves data transfer between memory and I/O devicesDevices and controllers transfer data to and from main memory directlyProcessor is free to execute software instructionsDMA channel uses an I/O controller to manage data transferNotifies processor when I/O operation is completeImproves performance in systems that perform large numbers of I/O operations (e.g., mainframes and servers)
14 2.3.8 Direct Memory Access (DMA) Figure 2.4 Direct memory access (DMA).
15 2.4 Hardware Support for Operating Systems What can a processor do to enforce protection?Execution modesBound registersInterrupts and exceptions
16 2.4.1 ProcessorA processor implements operating system protection mechanismsPrevents processes from accessing privileged instructions or memoryComputer systems generally have several different execution modes:User mode (user state or problem state)User may execute only a subset of instructionsKernel mode (supervisor state)Processor may access privileged instructions and resources on behalf of processes
17 2.4.1 Processor Memory protection and management Prevents processes from accessing memory that has not been assigned to themImplemented using processor registers modified only by privileged instructionsInterrupts and ExceptionsMost devices send a signal called an interrupt to the processor when an event occursExceptions are interrupts generated in response to errorsThe OS can respond to an interrupt by notifying processes that are waiting on such events