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Lecture 1: History of Operating System

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1 Lecture 1: History of Operating System
Spring 2007 Chapter 1 of textbook

2 Outline What is Operating System OS as User/Computer Interface
Services provided by OS OS as Resource Manager Evolution of OS

3 What is Operating System?
An operating system is a program that controls the execution of application programs and acts as an interface between applications and the computer hardware. Three objectives of operating systems: Convenience Makes a computer more convenient to use Efficiency Allows the computer system resources to be used in an efficient manner Ability to evolve Permit the effective development, testing, and introduction of new system functions without interfering with service

4 OS as User/Computer Interface
End User Programmer Application Programs Utilities Operating- System Designer Operating-System Computer Hardware

5 Services provided by the operating systems
Program Development OS provides a variety of facilities and services, such as editors and debuggers, to assist the programmer in creating programs. Typically, these services are in the form of utility programs that, while not strictly part of the core of the OS, are supplied with the OS and are referred to as application program development tools. Program Execution A number of tasks need to be performed before we can execute a program. Instructions and data must be loaded into main memory. I/O devices and files must be initialized, and other resources must be prepared. The OS handles these duties for the user.

6 Services provided by the operating systems (cont.)
Access to I/O Devices Each I/O devices requires its own peculiar set of instructions or control signals for operating. The OS provides a uniform interface that hides these details so that the programmer can access such devices using simple reads and writes. Controlled Access to File The OS must provide protection mechanisms to control access to the files for different users. Certain files can read only, or write only, or execute only. The OS must enforce the access mechanism. System Access In the case of a shared or public system, the OS control access to the system as a whole and to specific system resources.

7 Services provided by the operating systems (cont.)
Error Detection and Response A variety of errors can occur while a computer system is running Internal and External hardware errors such as memory error, device failure, or malfunctions. Software error such as arithmetic overflow or underflow, attempt to access forbidden memory locations Operating system cannot grant request of application Accounting Collect usage statistic Monitor performance Used to anticipate future enhancement prepare billing information

8 OS as Resource Manager Computer System I/O devices Memory OS Software
I/O controller printers Programs and data I/O controller Keyboards etc. . I/O controller Auxiliary storage devices, disks, tapes processor processor

9 OS as Resource Manager (cont.)
The OS is responsible for controlling and managing the various resources of a computer system. The OS functions in the same way as an ordinary computer software, i.e., it is a program or suite of programs executed by the processor The OS frequently relinquishes control of the processor and must depend on the processor to allow it to regain control The OS itself doesn’t do any “useful” work.

10 Ease of Evolution of an OS
A major OS will evolve over time for a number of reasons: Hardware upgrades plus new types of hardware New services demanded by users Fixer – fix holes in OS

11 Evolution of OS (1) 1940-1950 No operating system Run as an open shop
User signs up for certain time to use it

12 Evolution of OS (2) - Simple Batch Systems
mid 1950s - mid 1960s User no longer has direct access to the machine Submit the job to an operator who batches the jobs together sequentially and places the entire batch on the input device Often jobs of a similar nature can be bundled together to further increase economy Interrupt Processing Device Drivers Job Sequencing Control Language Interpreter User Program Area Monitor

13 Evolution of OS (2) - Simple Batch Systems (cont.)
Job Control Language (JCL) Special type of programming language Provide instruction to the monitor $JOB user_spec ; identify the user for accounting purposes $FORTRAN ; load the FORTRAN compiler source program cards $LOAD ; load the compiled program $RUN ; run the program data cards $EOJ ; end of job $JOB user_spec ; identify a new user $LOAD application $RUN data $EOJ

14 Evolution of OS (2) - Simple Batch Systems (cont.)
Need additional hardware features to support the batch OS: Memory Protection – protect the OS from being wiped out Timer – prevent the job run infinitely Privileged Instruction certain instruction can only be executed by OS, and not by user. I/O could only be performed in monitor (supervisor) mode, CPU runs in supervisor mode or user mode Interrupts early models did not have this capability. Later models have. Make more efficient use of resources Note: Some memory is given to OS and some processor time is given to OS. But we are still better off because machine is a lot faster than human operation.

15 Evolution of OS (3) - Multiprogrammed Batch Systems
Monitor (more like a operating system) User program 1 User program 2 User program 3 User program 4 1960s - present Several users are in memory at the same time Match I/O intensive job with CPU intensive job Important to have Interrupt-Driven I/O or DMA to support multiprogrammed batch system.

16 Uniprogramming Processor must wait for I/O instruction to complete before preceding

17 Multiprogramming When one job needs to wait for I/O, the processor can switch to the other job

18 Multiprogramming

19 Evolution of OS (4) - Time-Sharing Systems
1970s - present To support interactive computing In a time-sharing system, multiple users simultaneously access the system through terminals, with the OS interleaving the execution of each user program in a short burst or quantum of computation. Context Switching A job (now often called process) can get “switched in” or “switched out”. OS should give the illusion for the process as if it exists in the CPU continuously

20 Batch Multiprogramming versus Time Sharing
Principal objective Maximize processor use Minimize response time Source of directives to operating system Job control language commands provided with the job Commands entered at the terminal

21 Evolution of OS (5) Real-time computer
Execute programs that are guaranteed to have an upper bound on tasks that they carry out. e.g. guided missile systems, medical monitoring equipment Multiprocessor – have more than one CPU Shared memory multiprocessors Access the same memory - memory access must be synchronized Distributed memory multiprocessors Each CPU has its own associated memory – communication between processors is often slow and complicated Networked/Distributed Systems – consist of multiple computers Networked systems: users are aware of the different computers that make up the system Distributed systems: multiple computers are transparent to the user.

22 End of Lecture 1 Thank you!

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