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Chapter 5 Transfer of Training.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Transfer of Training."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Transfer of Training

2 Transfer of Training Transfer of training - trainees effectively and continually applying what they learned in training on their jobs The work environment plays an important role in ensuring that transfer of training occurs Transfer of training is also influenced by: trainee characteristics training design

3 A Model of The Transfer Process
Trainee Characteristics Motivation Ability Training Design Learning Retention Generalization and Maintenance Create a Learning Environment Apply Theories of Transfer Use Self-Management Strategies Work Environment Climate for Transfer Management and Peer Support Opportunity to Perform Technological Support

4 Training Design Training design refers to factors built into the training program to increase the chances that transfer of training will occur For transfer of training to occur we need to apply: Transfer of training theories Principles of self – management

5 Transfer of Training Theories
Theory Emphasis Appropriate Conditions Type of Transfer Identical Elements Training environment is identical to work environment Work environment features are predictable and stable Near Stimulus Generalization General principles are applicable to many different work situations Work environment is unpredictable and highly variable Far Cognitive Theory Meaningful material and coding schemes enhance storage and recall of training All types of training and environments Near and far

6 Self-Management Strategies
Self-management refers to a person’s attempt to control certain aspects of decision making and behavior Training programs should prepare employees to self-manage their use of new skills and behaviors on the job

7 Self-Management Involves:
Determining the degree of support and negative consequences in the work setting for using newly acquired skills Setting goals for using learned capabilities Applying learned capabilities to the job Monitoring use of learned capabilities on the job Engaging in self – reinforcement

8 Obstacles in the work environment that inhibit transfer of training: (1 of 3)
Work Conditions (Trainee has difficulty using new knowledge, skills, or behavior) Time pressures Inadequate equipment Few opportunities to use skills Inadequate budget

9 Obstacles in the work environment that inhibit transfer of training: (2 of 3)
Lack of Peer Support (Peers do not support use of new knowledge, skills, or behavior) Discourage use of new knowledge and skills on the job Unwilling to provide feedback See training as a waste of time

10 Obstacles in the work environment that inhibit transfer of training: (3 of 3)
Lack of Management Support (Managers do not reinforce training or provide opportunities to use new knowledge, skills, or behavior) Do not accept ideas or suggestions that are learned in training Do not discuss training opportunities Oppose use of skills learned in training Communicate that training is a waste of time Unwilling to provide feedback and reinforcement for trainees to use training content

11 Sample Content of Self-Management Module: (1 of 2)
Discuss lapses Note evidence of inadequacy Provide direction for improvement Identify skills targeted for transfer Identify when lapses are likely Situations Actions to deal with lapses Identify personal or environment factors contributing to lapse Low self-efficacy Time pressure Lack of manager or peer support

12 Sample Content of Self-Management Module: (2 of 2)
Discuss coping skills and strategies Time management Setting priorities Self-monitoring Self-rewards Creating a personal support network Discuss resources to ensure transfer of skills Manager Trainer Other trainees

13 Work Environment Characteristics Influencing Transfer of Training
Peer Support Opportunity to Use Learned Capabilities Technological Climate for Transfer Manager The following suggestions specify the types of changes in jobs that are most likely to lead to improvements in each of the five core dimensions. (1) Combine tasks - managers should put existing fractionalized tasks back together to form a new, larger module of work. This increases skill variety and task identify. (2) Create natural work units - managers should design tasks that form an identifiable and meaningful whole. This increases employee “ownership” of the work and encourages employees to view their work as meaningful and important rather than as irrelevant and boring. (3) Establish client relationships - the client is the user of the product or service that the employee works on. Whenever possible, managers should establish direct relationships between workers and their clients. This increases skill variety, autonomy, and feedback for the employee. (4) Expand jobs vertically - vertical expansion means giving employees responsibilities and controls that were formerly reserved for management. It partially closes the gap between the “doing” and “controlling” aspects of the job, and it increases employee autonomy. (5) Open feedback channels - by increasing feedback, employees not only learn how well they are performing their jobs but also whether their performances are improving, deteriorating, or remaining at a constant level. Ideally, employees should receive performance feedback directly as they do their jobs rather than from management on an occasional basis. 9

14 Characteristics of a Positive Climate for Transfer of Training: (1 of 2)
Supervisors and co-workers encourage and set goals for trainees to use new skills and behaviors acquired in training Task cues: Characteristics of a trainee’s job prompt or remind him to use new skills and behaviors acquired in training Feedback consequences: Supervisors support the application of new skills and behaviors acquired in training

15 Characteristics of a Positive Climate for Transfer of Training: (2 of 2)
Lack of punishment: Trainees are not openly discouraged from using new skills and behaviors acquired in training Extrinsic reinforcement consequences: Trainees receive extrinsic rewards for using new skills and behaviors acquired in training Intrinsic reinforcement consequences: Trainees receive intrinsic rewards for using new skills and behaviors acquired in training

16 Levels of Management Support for Training:
HIGH SUPPORT Description Participate as Trainer Allow Trainees Opportunity to Practice Discuss Progress with Trainees; Ask How to Support Trainees’ Use of New Capabilities Attend Session Accommodate Attendance at Training Through Rearranging Work Schedule; Endorse Employees’ Attending Training Permit Employees to Attend Training; Acknowledge Importance of Training Teaching in Program Practice Skills Reinforcement Participation Encouragement Acceptance LOW SUPPORT

17 Organizational Elements That Encourage Transfer:
Knowledge and Knowledge Management The Learning Organization

18 The Learning Organization
Learning organization – a company that has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt, and change Training processes are carefully scrutinized and aligned with company goals Training is seen as one part of a system designed to create intellectual capital

19 Key Features of a Learning Organization (1 of 2)
Description Continuous Learning Employees share learning with each other Use job as a basis for applying and creating knowledge Knowledge Generation and Sharing Systems are developed for creating, capturing, and sharing knowledge Critical Systematic Thinking Employees are encouraged to think in new ways, see relationships and feedback loops, and test assumptions

20 Key Features of a Learning Organization (2 of 2)
Description Learning Culture Learning is rewarded, promoted, and supported by managers and company objectives Encouragement of Flexibility and Experimentation Employees are free to take risks, innovate, explore new ideas, try new processes, and develop new products and services Valuing of Employees System and environment focus on ensuring the development and well-being of every employee

21 Knowledge and Knowledge Management (1 of 3)
Knowledge refers to: what individuals or teams of employees know or know how to do (human and social knowledge) a company’s rules, processes, tools, and routines (structured knowledge) Knowledge is either: tacit knowledge, or explicit knowledge

22 Knowledge and Knowledge Management (2 of 3)
Knowledge management refers to the process of enhancing company performance by: designing and implementing tools, processes, systems, structures, and cultures to improve the creation, sharing, and use of knowledge

23 Knowledge and Knowledge Management (3 of 3)
Knowledge management can help companies: Get products to market quicker Better serve customers Develop innovative products and services Attract new employees and retain current ones by giving people the opportunity to learn and develop

24 Four Modes of Knowledge Sharing
TO Tacit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge Socialization Externalization Internalization Combination Tacit Knowledge FROM Explicit Knowledge 4

25 Ways to Create and Share Knowledge (1 of 4)
Use technology and software that allows people to store information and share it with others Publish directories that list: what employees do how they can be contacted the type of knowledge they have

26 Ways to Create and Share Knowledge (2 of 4)
Develop informational maps that identify where specific knowledge is stored in the company Create chief information officer and chief learning officer positions for cataloging and facilitating the exchange of information in the company

27 Ways to Create and Share Knowledge (3 of 4)
Require employees to give presentations to other employees about what they have learned from training programs they have attended Allow employees to take time off from work to acquire knowledge, study problems, attend training, and use technology

28 Ways to Create and Share Knowledge (4 of 4)
Create an online library of learning resources such as journals, technical manuals, training opportunities, and seminars Design office space to facilitate interaction between employees

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