2 Introduction (1 of 2)Effective training practices involve the use of an instructional systems design processThe instructional systems design process begins by conducting a needs assessment
3 Introduction (2 of 2)Before choosing a training method, it is important to determine:what type of training is necessary, andwhether trainees are willing to learn
4 Needs AssessmentRefers to the process used to determine whether training is necessaryBecause needs assessment is the first step in the instructional design process:If it is poorly conducted, training will not achieve the outcomes or financial benefits the company expects
5 Causes and Outcomes of Needs Assessment Reasons or “Pressure Points”OutcomesLegislationLack of Basic SkillsPoor PerformanceNew TechnologyCustomer RequestsNew ProductsHigher Performance StandardsNew JobsWhat is the Context?What Trainees Need to LearnWho Receives TrainingType of TrainingFrequency of TrainingBuy Versus Build Training DecisionTraining Versus Other HR Options Such as Selection or Job RedesignHow Training Should Be EvaluatedOrganization AnalysisIn What Do They Need Training?Task AnalysisPerson AnalysisWho Needs the Training?
6 Needs assessment involves: (1 of 2) Organizational Analysis – involves determining:the appropriateness of training, given the business strategyresources available for trainingsupport by managers and peers for trainingTask Analysis – involves:identifying the important tasks and knowledge, skill, and behaviors that need to be emphasized in training for employees to complete their tasks
7 Needs assessment involves: (2 of 2) Person Analysis – involves:determining whether performance deficiencies result from a lack of knowledge, skill, or ability (a training issue) or from a motivational or work design problemidentifying who needs trainingdetermining employees’ readiness for training
8 Key Concerns of Upper- and Midlevel Managers and Trainers in Needs Assessment Upper-Level ManagersMidlevel ManagersTrainersOrganizationalAnalysisIs training important to achieve our business objectives?How does training support our business strategy?Do I want to spend money on training?How much?Do I have the budget to buy training services?Will managers support training?Person AnalysisWhat functions or business units need training?Who should be trained?Managers?Professionals?Core employees?How will I identify which employees need training?Task AnalysisDoes the company have the people with the knowledge, skills, and ability needed to compete in the marketplace?For what jobs can training make the biggest difference in product quality or customer service?What tasks should be trained?What knowledge, skills, ability, or other characteristics are necessary?
9 Needs Assessment Techniques InterviewsFocusGroupsDocumentationObservationQuestionnairesThe following suggestions specify the types of changes in jobs that are most likely to lead to improvements in each of the five core dimensions.(1) Combine tasks - managers should put existing fractionalized tasks back together to form a new, larger module of work. This increases skill variety and task identify.(2) Create natural work units - managers should design tasks that form an identifiable and meaningful whole. This increases employee “ownership” of the work and encourages employees to view their work as meaningful and important rather than as irrelevant and boring.(3) Establish client relationships - the client is the user of the product or service that the employee works on. Whenever possible, managers should establish direct relationships between workers and their clients. This increases skill variety, autonomy, and feedback for the employee.(4) Expand jobs vertically - vertical expansion means giving employees responsibilities and controls that were formerly reserved for management. It partially closes the gap between the “doing” and “controlling” aspects of the job, and it increases employee autonomy.(5) Open feedback channels - by increasing feedback, employees not only learn how well they are performing their jobs but also whether their performances are improving, deteriorating, or remaining at a constant level. Ideally, employees should receive performance feedback directly as they do their jobs rather than from management on an occasional basis.9
10 Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (1 of 3) ObservationGenerates data relevant to work environmentMinimizes interruption of workNeeds skilled observerEmployees’ behavior may be affected by being observedQuestionnairesInexpensiveCan collect data from a large number of personsData easily summarizedRequires timePossible low return rates, inappropriate responsesLacks detailOnly provides information directly related to questions asked
11 Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (2 of 3) InterviewsGood at uncovering details of training needsGood at uncovering causes and solutions of problemsCan explore unanticipated issues that come upQuestions can be modifiedTime consumingDifficult to analyzeNeeds skilled interviewerCan be threatening to SMEsDifficult to scheduleSMEs only provide information they think you want to hearFocus GroupsUseful with complex or controversial issues that one person may be unable or unwilling to exploreQuestions can be modified to explore unanticipated issuesTime consuming to organizeGroup members provide information they think you want to hearStatus or position differences may limit participation
12 Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques (3 of 3) Documentation(Technical Manuals and Records)Good source of information on procedureObjectiveGood source of task information for new jobs and jobs in the process of being createdYou may not be able to understand technical languageMaterials may be obsolete
13 The Needs Analysis Process Person AnalysisPerson CharacteristicsInputOutputConsequencesFeedbackOrganizational AnalysisStrategic DirectionSupport of Managers, Peers & Employees for Training ActivitiesTraining ResourcesDo We Want To Devote Time and Money For Training?Task Analysis or Develop a Competency ModelWork Activity (Task)KSAsWorking Conditions
14 Questions to Ask in an Organizational Analysis (1 of 3) How might the training content affect our employees’ relationship with our customers?What might suppliers, customers, or partners need to know about the training program?How does this program align with the strategic needs of the business?Should organizational resources be devoted to this program?
15 Questions to Ask in an Organizational Analysis (2 of 3) What do we need from managers and peers for this training to succeed?What features of the work environment might interfere with training?Do we have experts who can help us develop the program content and ensure that we understand the needs of the business as we develop the program?
16 Questions to Ask in an Organizational Analysis (3 of 3) Will employees perceive the training program as:an opportunity?reward?punishment?waste of time?
17 Person Characteristics Basic SkillsSelf-EfficiencyAwareness of Timing Needs, Career Interests, Goals+InputUnderstand What, How, When to PerformSituational ConstraintsSocial SupportOpportunity to PerformProcess for analyzing the factors that influence employee performance and learning+OutputExpectations for Learning and Performance+ConsequencesNormsBenefitsRewards+FeedbackFrequencySpecificityDetailMotivation to LearnLearning Performance
18 Person Analysis – Readiness for training refers to whether: Employees have the personal characteristics necessary to learn program content and apply it on the job.The work environment will facilitate learning and not interfere with performance.
19 Factors that influence employee performance and learning: (1 of 2) Person CharacteristicsAbility and skillAttitudes and motivationInputUnderstand need to performNecessary resources (equipment, etc.)Interference from other job demandsOpportunity to perform
20 Factors that influence employee performance and learning: (2 of 2) OutputStandard to judge successful performersConsequencesPositive consequences/incentives to performFew negative consequences to performFeedbackFrequent and specific feedback about how the job is performed
21 Person Analysis: Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy - the employees believe that they can successfully perform their job or learn the content of the training programThe job environment can be threatening to many employees who may not have been successful in the pastThe training environment can also be threatening to people who have not received training or formal education for some length of time
22 Employees’ self-efficacy level can be increased by: (1 of 2) Letting employees know that the purpose of the training is to try to improve performance rather than to identify areas in which employees are incompetentProviding as much information as possible about the training program and purpose of training prior to the actual training
23 Employees’ self-efficacy level can be increased by: (2 of 2) Showing employees the training success of their peers who are now in similar jobsProviding employees with feedback that learning is under their control and they have the ability and the responsibility to overcome any learning difficulties they experience in the program
24 To ensure that the work environment enhances trainees’ motivation to learn: (1 of 2) Provide materials, time, job-related information, and other work aids necessary for employees to use new skills or behavior before participating in training programsSpeak positively about the company’s training programs to employeesLet employees know they are doing a good job when they are using training content in their work
25 To ensure that the work environment enhances trainees’ motivation to learn: (2 of 2) Encourage work-group members to involve each other in trying to use new skills on the job by soliciting feedback and sharing training experiences and situations in which training content was helpfulProvide employees with time and opportunities to practice and apply new skills or behaviors to their work
26 Employees do not know how to perform effectively To determine if training is the best solution, assess whether: (1 of 3)The performance problem is important and has the potential to cost the company a significant amount of money from lost productivity or customersEmployees do not know how to perform effectivelyPerhaps they received little or no previous training or the training was ineffective(This problem is a characteristic of the person)
27 Employees cannot demonstrate the correct knowledge or behavior To determine if training is the best solution, assess whether: (2 of 3)Employees cannot demonstrate the correct knowledge or behaviorEmployees were trained but they infrequently or never used the training content on the job(This is an input problem)Performance expectations are clear (input) and there are no obstacles to performance such as faulty tools or equipment
28 To determine if training is the best solution, assess whether: (3 of 3) There are positive consequences for good performance, while poor performance is not rewardedEmployees receive timely, relevant, accurate, constructive, and specific feedback about their performance (a feedback issue)Other solutions such as job redesign or transferring employees to other jobs are too expensive or unrealistic
29 Person Analysis: Is training the best solution? If employees lack the knowledge and skill to perform and the other factors are satisfactory, training is neededIf employees have the knowledge and skill to perform but input, output, consequences, or feedback are inadequate, training may not be the best solution
30 Task AnalysisTask analysis results in a description of work activities, including tasks performed by the employee and the knowledge, skills, and abilities required to complete the tasksShould only be undertaken after you have determined from the organizational analysis that the company wants to devote time and money for training
31 Steps in a Task Analysis Select the job(s) to be analyzedDevelop a preliminary list of tasks performed by the jobValidate or confirm the preliminary list of tasksIdentify the knowledge, skills, or abilities necessary to successfully perform each task
32 Key Points to Remember When Conducting a Task Analysis (1 of 3) Task analysis should identify both what employees are actually doing and what they should be doing on the jobTask analysis begins by breaking the job into duties and tasksUse more than two methods for collecting task information to increase the validity of the analysis
33 Key Points to Remember When Conducting a Task Analysis (2 of 3) For task analysis to be useful, information needs to be collected from subject matter experts (SMEs)SMEs include:job incumbentsmanagersemployees familiar with the job
34 Key Points to Remember When Conducting a Task Analysis (3 of 3) In deciding how to evaluate tasks, the focus should be on tasks necessary to accomplish the company’s goals and objectivesThese may not be the tasks that are the most difficult or take the most time
35 CompetencyA competency refers to areas of personal capability that enable employees to successfully perform their jobs by achieving outcomes or successfully performing tasksA competency can be knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, or personal characteristics
36 Competency ModelA competency model identifies the competencies necessary for each job as well as the knowledge, skills, behavior, and personality characteristics underlying each competency
37 Competency models are useful for training and development in several ways: (1 of 2) They identify behaviors needed for effective job performanceThey provide a tool for determining what skills are needed to meet today’s needs as well as the company’s future skill needsThey help determine what skills are needed at different career points
38 Competency models are useful for training and development in several ways: (2 of 2) They provide a framework for ongoing coaching and feedback to develop employees for current and future rolesThey create a “roadmap” for identifying and developing employees who may be candidates for managerial positions
39 Scope of Needs Assessment Time constraints can limit the length and detail obtained from needs assessmentThe scope of the needs assessment depends on the size of the potential “pressure point”You will be able to anticipate training needs if you are attuned to the:business problemstechnological developmentsother issues facing the organization