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Specialized Business Information Systems Chapter 11.

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Presentation on theme: "Specialized Business Information Systems Chapter 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 Specialized Business Information Systems Chapter 11

2 Chapter Agenda  What is Artificial Intelligence? –Objective of AI –Characteristics of AI –Components of AI

3 Chapter Agenda  What are Expert Systems? –Characteristics & Components –Three factors in evaluating them. –Steps in developing them –Benefits

4 Chapter Agenda  What is Virtual Reality? –Definition –Examples  Other special purpose systems

5 The Nature of Intelligence 1. Learn from experience & apply the knowledge 2. Handle complex situations 3. Solve problems when important information is missing 4. Determine what is important

6 The Nature of Intelligence 5. React quickly & correctly to new situations 6. Understand visual images 7. Process & manipulate symbols 8. Be creative & imaginative 9. Use heuristics

7 Natural vs. Artificial Intelligence AttributeNatural Intelligence Artificial Intelligence Ability to use sensors or sensesHighLow Creativity or imaginationHighLow Learn from ExperienceHighLow Ability of be adaptiveHighLow Afford the cost of acquiring intelligence HighLow

8 Natural vs. Artificial Intelligence AttributeNatural Intelligence Artificial Intelligence Use a variety of information sourcesHigh ability to acquire large amounts of external info. High Complex calculationsLowHigh Transfer informationLowHigh rapid, accurate calculationsLowHigh

9 Branches of Artificial Intelligence

10 Support Vector Machines Machine Learning Data Mining

11 An Overview of Expert Systems

12 Characteristics of an Expert System 1. Can explain their reasoning or suggested decisions 2. Can display “intelligent” behavior 3. Can draw conclusions from complex relationships 4. Can provide portable knowledge 5. Can deal with uncertainty 6. Not widely used or tested

13 Characteristics of an Expert System 7. Limited to relatively narrow problems 8. Cannot readily deal with “mixed” knowledge 9. Possibility of error 10. Cannot refine its own knowledge 11. May have high development costs 12. Raise legal and ethical concerns

14 Capabilities of Expert Systems

15 When to Use Expert Systems  High payoff  Preserve scarce expertise  Distribute expertise  Provide more consistency than humans  Faster solutions than humans –Rapid/Automated Decision Making  Training expertise


17 Knowledge Base (traditional)  Assembling human experts  The use of fuzzy logic  The use of rules  The use of cases

18 Knowledge Base (Machine Learning & Data Mining Approach)  Collect vast data  Extracting or identifying patterns, trends, relationships  Train an adaptive program or robot  Test the program or robot  Evaluate the results

19 Knowledge Base

20 The Use of Rules

21 The Knowledge Acquisition Facility

22 Components of an Expert System  The explanation facility  The knowledge acquisition facility  The user interface

23 Expert Systems Development

24 Participants in Developing and Using Expert Systems

25 Domain Experts  Recognize the real problem  Develop a general framework for problem solving  Formulate theories about the situation  Develop and use general rules to solve a problem  Know when to break the rules or general principles  Solve problems quickly and efficiently

26 Expert Systems Development Tools and Techniques


28 Expert Systems Development Alternatives

29 Applications of Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence  Credit granting and loan analysis  Stock picking  Catching cheats and terrorists  Budgeting

30 Applications of Expert System and Artificial Intelligence  Information management and retrieval  Games  Virus detection  Hospitals and medical facilities

31 Virtual Reality

32  Enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment  Immersive virtual reality - user becomes fully immersed in an artificial, three-dimensional world that is completely generated by a computer  Virtual reality system - enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment

33 Segway

34 Interface Devices  Head-mounted display (HMD)  Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor (BOOM)  CAVE  Haptic interface

35 Forms of Virtual Reality  Mouse-controlled navigation  Stereo projection systems  Stereo viewing from the monitor via stereo glasses

36 Useful Applications  Medicine – used to link stroke patients to physical therapists  Education and training – used by military for aircraft maintenance  Entertainment –Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones

37 Useful Applications  Real Estate Marketing and Tourism –Used to increase real estate sales –Virtual reality tour of the White House

38 Other Specialized Systems  Segway Personal Transporter  Adaptive brain interface technology  Personal awareness assistant (PAA)

39 Summary  Artificial intelligence - used to describe computers with ability to mimic or duplicate functions of the human brain  Intelligent behavior - includes the ability to learn from experience  Expert systems - can explain their reasoning (or suggested decisions) and display intelligent behavior  Virtual reality systems - enables one or more users to move and react in a computer-simulated environment  Special-purpose systems - assist organizations and individuals in new and exciting ways. For example, Segway

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