Presentation on theme: "GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT IN ADULTHOOD"— Presentation transcript:
1 GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT IN ADULTHOOD Human Growth and DevelopmentGROWTH & DEVELOPMENT IN ADULTHOODLecture 10
2 Young Adulthood Stages of Development A biological process which transforms a child into an adult.Period of sexual maturationPeriod of Rapid Growth and DevelopmentHas best physical condition: strong, sharp senses.Memory and thinking (cognitive) abilities are at their highest.
3 Physical, Cognitive, Social, and Personality Desire to be socially independentOccupation selectionSelecting a life-partnerStarting a familyAccepting responsibilities
4 . Middle Adulthood Stages of Development Cognitive → shows an average memory loss and a reduced ability to perform tasks requiring speed.The social and personality development → "mid-life crisis" which heralds the reevaluation of one's life goalsBy this point in life, career and family are well establishedPeople feel satisfaction and self-worth, or sense much of life has been wasted
5 . Late Adulthood Stages of Development Marked by menopause and osteoporosis, a reduction in bone density, less skin elasticity, and a loss of muscle mass resulting in an increase of body fat.Cognitively→ memory and mobility tends to decrease.Many people relax, enjoying the fruits of their labourChildren and grandchildren become the focus of attention
6 Physical, Cognitive, Social, and Personality depression that may go untreated.a period of readjustment to changes in their bodyRetirementfinancial status changeloss of a spouse.
7 HEALTH IN LATE ADULTHOOD Many elderly lead healthy livesHowever, aging adults face many possible health changesDementias are progressive impairment of mental functioningReversible dementias can be caused by malnutrition, alcoholism, and toxins.Alzheimer’s disease involves memory loss, language deterioration, poor visual/spatial skills, and an indifferent attitude
8 PHYSICAL CHANGES IN ADULTHOOD Today most people live well into their seventiesPhysical development in adulthood is slower than childhood and adolescence, but changes do occur
9 → Eventually, adults must contend with almost inevitable sensory loss FITNESS CHANGES→ In general, overall fitness deteriorates gradually from age 30.SENSORY CHANGES→ In early adulthood, most sensory abilities remain stable→ Eventually, adults must contend with almost inevitable sensory loss
10 SEXUAL CHANGESSexual desires are sometimes moderated by the stresses of raising a family and other workFor women, menopause occurs around age 50At about the same age, men’s testosterone levels decrease
11 Theories of AgingOne heredity theory of aging is based on the study of apoptosis, the process by which cells kill themselvesLifestyle factors affect how long a person will liveIt is reasonable to assume external factors such as disease, smoking, and obesity may affect a person’s lifespanPhysiological theories rely on both hereditary and environmental factors
12 SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT IN ADULTHOOD Younger adults focus on identity, careers, intimate relationships and parenthoodMiddle-age adults focus on caring for children and older parents, dealing with role changes and planning for retirementOlder adults address changing roles, retirement, loss of friends or spouse, changing friendships, physical change and deathPersonality remains stable over time but there are greater personal challenges and opportunities as one ages
13 GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ADULT STAGES Women follow life stages similar to those of menWomen are taught different values, goals and approaches to lifeWomen must deal with multiple roles and responsibilitiesFriendships between women and men differWomen see age 40 as a time to reassess while some men view age 40 as a last chance at youth
14 AgeismAgeism is prejudice against the elderly, and the discrimination it leads to.People seen through positive stereotypes are less likely to suffer discrimination
15 The Final Transition: Dying People’s overall health deteriorates with ageThanatology is the study of the psychological and medical aspects of death and dying
17 STAGE THEORIES OF ADULT DEVELOPMENT Stage 5 of Erikson’s theory is identity vs. role confusion (Adolescence)Adolescents are in search of an identity that will lead them to adulthood."Who am I?"If the child over comes earlier conflicts they are prepared to search for identity.
18 STAGE THEORIES OF ADULT DEVELOPMENT Stage 6 is intimacy vs. isolation (Young Adulthood)The most important events are love relationshipsAn individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship and may retreat into isolation.
19 STAGE THEORIES OF ADULT DEVELOPMENT The crisis in Stage 7 revolves around generativity vs. stagnation (Middle Adulthood)Does the adult have the ability to care and guide the next generation?Each adult must have some way to satisfy and support the next generation.
20 STAGE THEORIES OF ADULT DEVELOPMENT In Stage 8, ego integrity vs. despair (Late Adulthood)The most important event at this stage is coming to accept one's whole life and reflecting on that life in a positive manner.Accepting responsibility for your life and being able to undo the past and achieve satisfaction with self is essential. The inability to do this results in a feeling of despair.
21 The EndI hope every student has enjoyed of the growth and development course, I wish every student succeeds in the final exam. For any Question, don’t hesitate to come in my office Thanks, Ahmad Ata