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1 Foundations of Software Design Lecture 1: Course Overview Intro to Binary and Boolean Marti Hearst SIMS, University of California at Berkeley

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2 Course Objectives Learn key computer science concepts. Catch up on missing math background. Become able to work on larger programming projects. Prepare you for IS206 in Spring.

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3 Course Structure Lectures –Do readings in advance –Discussion encouraged Labs –Lead by the TAs –Practice concepts from lecture –Answer questions Homework –Something due almost every week –Often will be doing pair programming Grading –Not assigning letter grade, but giving feedback –To pass the class, you must attend all lectures and labs, and turn in all homeworks on time Exams –I reserve the right to have exams if people don’t work hard

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4 Instructors Professor: Marti Hearst TAs –John Fritch –Kaichi Sung –Leah Zagreus Office hours: TBA Lab: –Wed 12:30-2:00

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5 TextBooks Programming for Corpus Linguistics--How to do Text Analysis in Java By Oliver Mason Computer Science: An Overview, 7 th Edition Glenn Brookshear Data Structures & Other Objects Using Java by Michael Main REQUIRED STRONGLY RECOMMENDED

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6 Course Outline 1.How Computers Work 2.Object-Oriented Design 3.Analysis of Algorithms 4.Data Structures 1.Collections, Stacks and Queues 2.Trees and Graphs 3.Hash Tables 4.Disk-based data structures 5.Search Algorithms 6.Sorting Algorithms 7.Formal Languages 8.Computability

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7 Useful Topics we are NOT covering: (These should be covered in IS206) –Distributed systems Threads Client-server architectures Networking –Security Probability Theory Coding theory (Huffman codes, etc)) Encryption –Scripting

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8 Lab Tomorrow Either take the placement exam in room 202 Or build a home page in the lab in room 210

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9 Upcoming Reading Assignments For hyperlinks, see course website For Today: –Brookshear, Ch. 1.1-1.6 For Thursday: –Brookshear 2.4, Online demo of logic gates and circuitsOnline demo of logic gatescircuits For Tuesday Sept 3 –Brookshear 2.1-2.5, Online demo of a CPUOnline demo of a CPU For Thursday Sept 5 –Brookshear 3.1-3.5, 8.1-8.2

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10 How Do Computers Work?

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11 What happens when … Your program creates a variable? You program runs a loop? What really happens?

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12 Binary Digits (Bits) Yes or No On or Off One or Zero 10010010

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13 Bytes A sequence of bits 8 bits = 1 byte 2 bytes = 1 word (sometimes 4 or 8 bytes) How do binary numbers work?

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14 Number Systems For more info on number systems, see http://courses.cs.vt.edu/~csonline/NumberSystems/Lessons/index.html Images from http://courses.cs.vt.edu/~csonline/MachineArchitecture/Lessons/Circuits/index.html

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15 Powers of Two DecimalBinaryPower of 2 11 210 4100 81000 1610000 32100000 641000000 12810000000

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16 Famous Powers of Two Images from http://courses.cs.vt.edu/~csonline/MachineArchitecture/Lessons/Circuits/index.html

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17 Orders of Magnitude Each increase in the power of 10 is an increase in order of magnitude http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scie nceopticsu/powersof10/index.htmlhttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/scie nceopticsu/powersof10/index.html

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18 Other Number Systems Images from http://courses.cs.vt.edu/~csonline/MachineArchitecture/Lessons/Circuits/index.html

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19 Binary Addition Images from http://courses.cs.vt.edu/~csonline/MachineArchitecture/Lessons/Circuits/index.html Also: 1 + 1 + 1 = 1 with a carry of 1

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20 Boolean Logic AND, OR, NOT, NOR, NAND, XOR Each operator has a set of rules for combining two binary inputs –These rules are defined in a Truth Table –(This term is from the field of Logic) Each implemented in an electronic device called a gate –Gates operate on inputs of 0’s and 1’s –These are more basic than operations like addition –Gates are used to build up circuits that Compute addition, subtraction, etc Store values to be used later Translate values from one format to another

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21 Truth Tables Images from http://courses.cs.vt.edu/~csonline/MachineArchitecture/Lessons/Circuits/index.html

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22 Interactive demo of Boolean logic http://courses.cs.vt.edu/~csonline/MachineArchitectu re/Lessons/Gates/index.html

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