2 The Brain The Brain The Tools of Discovery Older Brain Structures The Cerebral CortexOur Divided BrainLeft Brain-Right Brain
3 The BrainTechniques to Study the BrainBrain lesion experimentally destroys brain tissue to study animal behaviors after such destruction.OBJECTIVE 5-1| Describe several techniques for studying the brain.Hubel (1990)Psychology 7e in Modules
4 Neurological and psychiatric diseases are now catalogued. Clinical ObservationNeurological and psychiatric diseases are now catalogued.Tom Landers/ Boston Globe
5 Electroencephalogram (EEG) An amplified recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain’s surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.AJ Photo/ Photo Researchers, Inc.
6 PET ScanPET (positron emission tomography) Scan a visual display of brain activity that detects a radioactive form of glucose while the brain performs a given task.Courtesy of National Brookhaven National Laboratories
7 MRI & fMRI Scanventricular enlargement in a schizophrenic patient.MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) uses magnetic fields and radio waves that reveal structure.fMRI (functional MRI) reveals brain’s functioning by making a sort of “movie” of changes in the activity of the brain and structure.Both photos from Daniel Weinberger, M.D., CBDB, NIMHJames Salzano/ Salzano PhotoLucy Reading/ Lucy Illustrationsbrain regions when a participant lies.
8 Older Brain Structures Brainstem the oldest part of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells and enters the skull. Responsible for automatic survival functions.OBJECTIVE 5-2| Describe the components of the brainstem and summarize the functions of the brainstem, thalamus and cerebellum.Psychology 7e in Modules
9 Brain StemMedulla [muh-DUL-uh] base of the brainstem, controls heartbeat and breathing.Reticular Formation – a nerve network inside the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
10 Brain StemThalamus [THAL-uh-muss] the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
11 CerebellumThe “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem. It helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance along with some nonverbal learning and memory.
12 The Limbic SystemLimbic System a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression and drives for food and sex. It includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.OBJECTIVE 5-3| Describe the structures and functions of the limbic system, and explain how one of these structures controls the pituitary gland.Psychology 7e in Modules
13 AmygdalaAmygdala [ah-MIG-dah-la] two almond-shaped neural clusters linked to emotion of fear and anger.
14 HypothalamusHypothalamus lies below (hypo) the thalamus; directs several maintenance activities like eating, drinking body temperature, and emotions. Helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.
15 Reward Center (nucleus accumbens) Rats cross an electrified grid for self-stimulation, when electrodes are placed in the reward center (hypothalamus) .When the limbic system is manipulated rat will navigate fields or climb up a tree.Sanjiv Talwar, SUNY Downstate
16 The Cerebral CortexThe intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres. The body’s ultimate control and information processing center.OBJECTIVE 5-4| Define cerebral cortex and explain its importance fro the human brain.Psychology 7e in Modules
17 Human cortex compared to various animal species Menu
18 Structure of the Cortex frontal lobes (forehead) – planning, organization, impulse controlparietal lobes (top to rear head) – touch, taste, temperatureoccipital lobes (back head) – visiontemporal lobes (side of head) – auditory and higher visual processing.OBJECTIVE 5-5| Identify the four lobes of the cerebral cortex.Psychology 7e in Modules
19 Functions of the Cortex Motor Cortex area at the rear of the frontal lobes controls voluntary movements. Sensory Cortex (parietal cortex) receives information from skin surface and sense organs.OBJECTIVE 5-6| Summarize some of the findings on the functions of the motor cortex and the sensory cortex, and discuss the importance of the association areas.Psychology 7e in Modules
20 Visual FunctionFunctional MRI scan shows the visual cortex activates as the subject looks at faces.Courtesy of V.P. Clark, K. Keill, J. Ma. Maisog, S. Courtney, L.G.Ungerleider, and J.V. Haxby,National Institute of Mental Health
21 Auditory FunctionFunctional MRI scan shows the auditory cortex is active in patients who hallucinate.
22 Association AreasMore intelligent animals have increased “uncommitted” or association areas of the cortex.
23 Spatial neglect - damage to the association areas of the right hemisphere resulting in an inability to recognize objects or body parts in the left visual field.
24 LanguageAphasia is an impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impaired speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impaired understanding).OBJECTIVE 5-7| Describe the five brain areas that would be involved if you read this sentence aloud.Psychology 7e in Modules
25 Language is primarily a left hemisphere activity for most individuals LO Left side and right side of brainLanguage is primarily a left hemisphere activity for most individualsMenu
26 Specialization & Integration Brain activity when hearing, seeing, and speaking words
27 The Brain’s Plasticity Brain is sculpted by our genes but also by our experiences.Plasticity refers to the brain’s ability to modify itself after some type of injury or illness.OBJECTIVE 5-8| Discuss brain’s plasticity following injury or illness.Psychology 7e in Modules
28 Our Divided Brain – two hemispheres Left hemisphere -Sequential processing for analytic reasoning and language, reading, writing, calculations, comprehension skills, and thus termed as the dominant brain in the 1960s.Right hemisphere – Simultaneous processing, nonverbal, visual-spatial, melody, pitch, emotional content of languageOBJECTIVE 5-9| Describe split-brain research, and explain how it helps us to understand the functions of our left and right hemispheres.Psychology 7e in Modules
29 Splitting the BrainA procedure in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them.Corpus CallosumCourtesy of Terence Williams, University of IowaMartin M. Rother
30 Split Brain PatientsWith the corpus callosum severed, objects (apple) presented in the right visual field can be named. Objects (pencil) in the left visual field cannot.
32 LO 2.13 Left side and right side of brain Split-brain subjects stared at a dot and viewed a composite of two faces (A). When asked what they saw, subjects chose the child—the image sent to the verbal left hemisphere (B). But when subjects pointed to the face with the left hand, they chose the woman with glasses—whose image was received by the right hemisphere (C) (Levy et al., 1983).Menu
33 Try drawing two shapes with both of you hands simultaneously. Try This!Try drawing two shapes with both of you hands simultaneously.BBC
34 Non-Split BrainsPeople with intact brains also show left-right hemispheric differences in mental abilities.A number of brain scan studies have shown normal individuals engage their right brain when they engage in a perceptual task, and left brain when carrying out a linguistic task.
35 Brain Organization & Handedness Is handedness inherited? Yes. Archival and historic studies to modern medical studies point that right hand is preferred. This suggests, genes and/or prenatal factors influence handedness.OBJECTIVE 5-10| Discuss the relationship among brain organization, handedness, and mortality.Psychology 7e in Modules
36 Is it All Right to be Left Handed? Being a left hander is difficult in a right-handed world.Psychology 7e in Modules
37 Is it All Right to be Left Handed? The percentage of left-handers decreases sharply in samples of older people (Coren, 1993).Psychology 7e in Modules