4 Concentration of liquid foods Concentration of liquid foods is a vital operation in many food processes. Concentration is deferent from dehydration,. Generally, foods that are concentrated remain in the liquid state, whereas drying produces solid or semisolid foods with significantly lower water content.
6 Liquid Concentration Technologies Several technologies are available for liquid concentration in the food industry, with the most common being evaporation and membrane concentration. Freeze concentration is another technology that has been developed over the past few decades, although significant applications of freeze concentration of foods are limited.
8 Evaporation Concentration Evaporation concentration means removal of water by boiling. Evaporation finds application in a variety of food processing operations. A primary application is concentration of fruit juices (orange juice concentrate), vegetable juices (tomato pastes and purees), and dairy products (condensed milk). Evaporation is also used to concentrate salt and sugars prior to refining.
9 Membrane Separation Concentration The basis for membrane separations is the difference in permeability of a semiporous membrane to different molecular sizes. Smaller molecules pass through these membranes more easily than larger ones. Since water is one of the smallest molecules, concentration is easily accomplished using membranes with appropriate molecular-weight cutoffs.
10 Freeze ConcentrationWater is partially frozen to produce an ice crystal slurry in concentrated product. Separation of ice crystals is then accomplished using some washing technique. Current applications of freeze concentration are limited to fruit juices, coffee, and tea extracts, and beer and wine. Freeze concentration produces a superior product
11 Requirements for optimal evaporation (l) rapid rate of heat transfer.(2) low-temperature operation through application of a vacuum.(3) efficient vapor-liquid separation.(4) efficient energy use and recovery.
12 Types of Evaporators Short tube or Calandria Evaporator. Long Tube Vertical Rising Film EvaporatorLong Tube Vertical Falling Film EvaporatorForced Circulation Evaporator.Wipe Film or Agitated Thin Film Evaporator.Plate Evaporator.Centrifugal/Conical Evaporator.
13 Short tube EvaporatorA short but wide steam chest in the form of a shell and tube heat exchanger characterize this type of evaporator. Steam is fed to the inside of the internal tubes. Circulation is generated naturally. Density differences due to heating around the steam pipes cause the warmer fluid to rise and the colder fluid to sink. A vacuum source maintains to reduce boiling temperature.
16 Long Tube Vertical Rising Film Evaporator A thin film of liquid food is formed on the inside of the long tubes, with steam providing heat transfer from the outside. The vaporizing bubbles of steam cause film of concentrate to rise upwards inside the tubes. Vapor and concentrate are separated, as they exit the top, in a separate chamber.
18 Long Tube Vertical Falling Film Evaporator Using gravity to make liquid flow downwards. Steam condensing on the outside of the tubes causes evaporation of a thin film of product flowing down the inside of the tubes. Product and steam exit the bottom of the tubes together, then are separated.
21 Forced Circulation Evaporator Fluid is pumped from the main evaporator chamber through an external steam chest. Vapor-liquid separation occurs in the main chamber, Dilute feed is added to the recirculation loop, and sent through the steam chestSince external pumping is used to maintain fluid flow, excellent heat transfer can be obtained, But, recirculation of the fluid through the steam chest causes long residence times
23 Wipe Film or Agitated Thin Film Evaporator Very viscous foods are difficult to evaporate efficiently using any of the previously discussed evaporators. Products such as thick fruit or vegetable purees, or even highly concentrated sugar syrups, can be efficiently evaporated when a thin film at the heat transfer surface is continuously agitated or wiped to prevent buildup.
25 Plate EvaporatorA series of metal plates and frames forms the heat exchange surface both product and steam are directed in alternate gaps. Evaporation can take place within the plate and frame system, or evaporation can be suppressed by maintaining sufficient pressure and allowing evaporation to occur as the heated product flashes into a lower pressure chamber.
28 Single Effect Evaporation The simplest mode of evaporation is to use a single stage, where steam is fed into the steam chest, concentrate and vapor are removed, and the vapor is condensed into hot water.However, the vapors produced are still steam, and thus can be used to provide the heat for evaporation in a subsequent stage. Therefore, steam can be used many times to provide evaporation in a series of operations.
30 multiple-effect evaporation In a two-stage evaporator, the vapors produced by evaporation of water in the first stage are fed into the steam chest of the second stage to provide further evaporation. Since there is no driving force. Thus, operating pressure in the second stage must be reduced to lower the boiling temperature
32 Thermal Vapor Recompression The quality of the vapors produced during evaporation can be recompressed. One alternative is to use fresh steam to enhance the value of a portion of the vapors. This combined steam is then fed into the steam chest. High pressure steam is passed through a nozzle (or ejector) before entering the evaporator chamber. As the fresh steam passes through the nozzle.
34 Mechanical Vapor Recompression Mechanical compression can be used to improve the quality of vapors. The vapors from a single stage are compressed to higher pressure in a mechanical compressor and then reused as steam in the steam chest . Reuse of compressed vapors makes up most of the steam addition. Only a small portion of fresh steam is needed to account for inevitable energy losses. Steam economies can be obtained.
36 MEMBRANE SEPRATIONSMembranes allow only certain molecules to pass through, effectively separating water molecules from other food constituents,Classification of membrane separations is based primarily on molecular size. reverse osmosis/ ultra/micro filtration.No vapor-liquid interface to cause the loss of volatile flavors and aromasMembranes tend to foul
37 Operation PrinciplesSeparations in semipermeable membrane systems is based on forcing some of the molecules in the system through the membrane while retaining others on the feed side while larger molecules remain on the feed side (retentate).
38 difference between reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration The difference between reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration or microfiltration is the size of molecules that can pass through the membrane. Reverse--osmosis membranes allow only the smallest molecules (Water, some salts, and volatile compounds) to pass through, whereas ultrafiltration and microfiltration limit only the largest molecules (i.e., proteins, starches, gums, etc.) and allow all smaller molecules to pass through.
39 MEMBRANE SYSTEMS Membrane Materials Cellulose Acetate. Polymer membranes.Composite or Ceramic Membranes.Membrane Module DesignPlate and frame.Spiral Wound.Tubular.Hollow Fiber.
42 Osmotic PressureA salt solution and pure water are separated with a semipermeable membrane. Water migrates from the pure water into the saltwater. As this equilibrium is attained, the pressures on the two sides of the membrane are unequal, The difference in pressure between the two sides is the osmotic pressure.
43 Factors Influencing Osmotic Pressure Type of solutes (smaller molecules or larger molecules)Concentration.Salts and sugars influenced osmotic pressure mainly.
44 Osmotic Pressure of Dilute Solution C=solute concentrationMw=molecular weight of soluteR=gas constant
46 Reverse OsmosisTo cause an increase in concentration of the salt solution , the pressure of the salt must be raised above the osmotic pressure. When the applied pressure on the salt side exceeds the osmotic pressure, water molecules begin to flow from the saltwater into the pure water. This is called reverse osmosis.
48 reverse osmosis process Feed under high pressure, exceeding the osmotic pressure of the feed, contacts the membrane. Material that passes through it is the permeate, while material that does not pass through the membrane, is retentate. Since membranes are not perfectly selective, they allow some smaller solute molecules to pass through; the permeate is not pure water
49 Solvent Flux in Reverse Osmotic Processing Kw=membrane permeability factorΔP=pressure differential across the membraneΔπ= difference in osmotic pressure between feed and permeate
50 Mass Flux of Solute Ns=mass flux of solute through membrane Ks= membrane permeability coefficientCf &Cp=solute concentration in feed and permeate respectively
51 Definition of solute rejection parameter A solute rejection parameter, R, is defined as the ratio of the amount of solute that passes through the membrane divided by the initial feed concentration.
53 Concentration Polarization Molecules that do not get through the membrane accumulate on the feed side. A boundary layer is built up at the membrane surface due to this solute rejection. Concentrations of factors 1.2 to 2 higher than the initial feed concentration can be developed in this polarization layer
54 Negative Influences of Concentration Polarization The pressure driving force is reduced, so solvent flux is reduced In addition, solute flux is increased.Concentration buildup often leads to severe fouling on the membrane surface. When the concentration in this polarization layer exceeds the solubility concentration of the salt it precipitates and forms a more solid layer. This layer has reduced permeability.
55 Techniques Reducing Polarization The feed should be as clear of insoluble solids as possible. Citrus juice concentration by reverse osmosis requires an initial filtration step to remove the pulp.Techniques that result in higher flow velocities across the membrane "sweep" away the concentration polarization layer and maximize permeate flux.Reduced concentrations in the feed also result in reduced polarization layer.
56 Factors Influencing Flux in Reverse Osmosis 1.Transmembrane pressure (ΔP)2.Type of feed material (concentration molecular weight of solute)3.Temperature (Higher temperature gives lower viscosity and reduces concentration polarization)4.Feed concentration5.Feed flow rate (polarization layers)
58 UltrafiltrationUltrafiltration use higher permeability membranes allowing small molecules to pass through and retain larger molecules.Larger molecules are retained and dissolved sugars and salts pass through.In the dairy industry, ultrafiltration is used to concentrate milk or whey, allowing everything but the proteins to pass through.
61 MEMBRANE SYSTEMS Membrane Materials Cellulose Acetate/Polymer membranes/ Composite or Ceramic Membranes.Membrane Module DesignPlate and frame/Spiral Wound/Tubular/ Hollow Fiber.
62 Cellulose AcetateThe membranes provide high permeate flux and good salt rejection in reverse osmosis. However, cellulose acetate breaks down at high temperatures, is pH sensitive (pH 5 to 6), and is broken down by Cl- ions. Since chlorine cleaners and sanitizers are commonly used in the food industry, the sensitivity of cellulose acetate membranes to chlorine has caused significant problems.
63 Polymer membranesPolyamides provide better pH resistance than cellulose acetate. Polysulfones provide a good alternative, operate at a wide pH range (1 to 15), and have chlorine resistance (up to 50 ppm). They are easy be produced with a wide range of pore size cutoffs. But, these membranes do not withstand high pressures and are used almost exclusively for ultra-filtration
64 Composite or Ceramic Membranes These membranes are made from porous carbon, zirconium oxide, or alumina. Due to the inert nature of the composite materials, membranes made from these materials have a wide range of operating conditions (temperature, pH). They are also resistant to chlorine attack and can be cleaned easily.
65 Membrane Module Design Membranes can be packaged in many ways to provide options for separation. The main categories include:Plate-and-frame arrangementSpiral-wound membranes,Tubular membranesHollow-fiber membranes.
68 Spiral WoundRolling up a flat membrane and spacer system into a spiral-wound package Feed is distributed to the appropriate channels at one end of the roll; permeate passes through the membrane and makes its way back around the spiral to a collector tube at the center of the roll. Permeate then passes out the center, while retentate is collected at the opposite end.
70 TubularA cylindrical membrane and support system is housed inside a larger tube. Feed is pumped into the center of the tube under applied pressure; permeate passes through the membrane system and is collected in the outside tube. Retentate passes directly through the membrane and is removed from the opposite side.
72 Hollow FiberA bundle of smaller membrane tubes (only millimeters in diameter) containing hundreds of individual tubes may be housed in a single larger shell. Feed is directed into the tubes at one end, while concentrate is removed at the other end. Permeate passing through the membranes is collected from the shell side of the housing.
73 CLEANING AND SANITATION Mild acids and bases with nonionic surfactants, enzymes, and complexing agents are used to clean membranesClean-in-place systems can be used to clean membrane modules, with the most rapid flow rate possible to induce turbulence at the membrane surface.
74 FOOD QUALITY IN MEMBRANE OPERATIONS Because low temperature operation, thermal degradation of nutrients does not occur.The quality of foods processed using membrane systems is generally superior to that produced using other concentration technologies
75 FREEZE CONCENTRATION TYPES OF FREEZE CONC. UNITS Ice Crystallization Direct Contact Freezers.Indirect-Contact freezersSeparation DevicesMechanical PressCentrifugal.Wash Column.ECONOMIC DESIGN OF FREEZE CONCENTRATION
76 Definition of Freeze Concentration A liquid food is cooled with sufficient agitation, ice crystals nucleate and grow, and a slurry of relatively pure ice crystals removed, The concentrate can be obtained. Separation of these pure ice crystals leaves a concentrated product.
77 Advantages & Disadvantage of Freeze Concentration High product quality due to low-temperature operationAbsence of a vapor-liquid interface maintaining original flavors.Higher cost of than the other two.
78 Employed on Wide Range of Products Fruit juices, milk products, vinegar, coffee and tea extracts, beer and wine, and other flavor products.Concentration of alcoholic beverages is one application where freeze concentration is superior to other techniques.
85 ProblemHow to obtain high quality food product in evaporation concentration.How to lower the cost in liquid concentration operation.
86 ProblemDescribe the principles of both evaporation and membrane concentrationWhat are the differences between reverse osmosis and ultra-filtration.How to understand the membrane materialsHow to consider the membrane module design
87 Problem Explain the principles of freeze concentration How to understand the operation of freeze concentrationWhat are the advantages of freeze concentration and how to to obtain food in high quality economically.