Summarize three ways muscle function changes with age. Strength decreases due to loss of muscle mass. The proportion of slow twitch fibers increases and fast twitch fibers decreases, so that there is little change in the rate of decline in force during a fatiguing task. The maximum velocity produced against a mass is less for the old, with the greatest loss at higher velocities.
How does cardiovascular function change with age? Maximum heart rate: –decreases with age (MHR = 220 – age) Resting cardiac output: –declines about 1 percent per year during adulthood Coronary arteries: –cross-sectional area of the lumen is reduced by about 30 percent from young adulthood to 60 years Blood flow: –during exercise is less, probably due to increased peripheral resistance VO 2 max: –declines gradually with age
What are some of the changes that take place in pulmonary function with age? Vital capacity of the lungs declines Ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity increases. Anatomic dead space in the lungs increases Lung compliance increases, but thoracic wall compliance decreases, so that older people do more elastic work, mostly to move the chest wall Significant decrease in the capacity for pulmonary diffusion at rest and during exercise Process of breathing becomes less efficient with age
What is the most likely reason for the slowing of reaction time with age? Aging of the central nervous system
What effect does arteriosclerosis have on the nervous system? May be responsible for decreased cerebral function
How does aging affect body composition? Aging humans tend to increase body weight and percent body fat and to decrease fat-free weight. Stature? We grow shorter as we get older by about one-half inch per decade after age 30.
What combination of factors is the likely explanation for changes in functional capacities with age? True aging phenomena Unrecognized disease processes Disuse phenomena
What steps can be taken to combat bone density loss? A combination of aerobic and resistance training Adequate calcium intake
Research has found that it is unclear that exercise in later life decreases disability. Why? Disability has more than just a physical component; it is also based on beliefs, emotions, ability to cope, and background.
What should an aerobic training program for a healthy older adult include? Mode: –Aerobic activity Intensity: –An intensity of 55 to 90 percent of maximal heart rate or 40 to 85 percent of maximum heart rate reserve Duration: –A duration of 20 to 60 minutes a session (or in 10- minute bouts accumulated throughout the day) Frequency: –A frequency of three to five days per week
What are some benefits of aerobic training for older adults? Better blood lipid profiles Improved glucose tolerance Reduced body fatness Decreased hypertension Increased bone mineral density Reduced risk of falls Increased endurance Reduced fatigue Increased vigor
Name some activities besides formal exercise programs that you can recommend to older adults for aerobic conditioning. Brisk walking Gardening Yard work Housework Climbing stairs Active recreational pursuits
Why is resistance training important for maintaining independence? Adequate muscle strength is necessary for daily tasks such as housework, yard work, and self- care.
Name six benefits of resistance training for older adults. Increased strength Increased muscle mass Increased bone mineral density Increased resting metabolic rate Decreased body fatness Decreased risk of falls
What are some guidelines you should follow when designing a resistance training program for an older adult? Focus on four to six large muscle groups and supplement with exercises for three to five small muscle groups Use different types of resistance training equipment, including food cans or water-filled milk cartons Begin with a warm-up followed by exercises for the large muscle groups, then the small muscle groups, and end with a cool-down Resistance should be about 50 to 85 percent of the 1 RM load for 8 to 15 repetitions
What are some guidelines you should follow when designing a resistance training program for an older adult? Progress from one to three sets of each exercise Include rest intervals between sets and exercises of about two to three minutes Training should be done at least twice a week with a minimum of 48 hours between sessions Complete the session in 20 to 30 minutes
International Society for Aging and Physical Activity www.isapa.org Huffington Center on Aging: Geriatric Education and Research www.hcoa.org/default.htm MFAAA—Links www.mfaaa.org/links.html Physical Fitness and Senior Citizens http://seniors-site.com/sports/fitness.html