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Improving Your Personal Fitness
Physical Activity for Health, Fitness, and Performance25.4 percent of Americans are sedentary. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood of coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other chronic diseases. Physical activity refers to all body movements produced by the skeletal muscles resulting in substantial increase in energy expenditure. Exercise refers to a planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement done to improve or maintain components of physical fitness. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Physical Activity for Physical FitnessPhysical fitness is the ability to perform regular moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without excessive fatigue. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Aerobic ("with oxygen") Exercise is exercise performed at moderate levels of intensity for extended periods of time with increased heart rate. Aerobic capacity (VO2max) is the maximum volume of oxygen consumed by the muscles during exercise. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Components of Physical Fitness© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Physical Activity for Physical FitnessMuscular Strength Refers to the amount of force a muscle or group of muscles can generate in one contraction. To assess the strength of a particular muscle or muscle group, measure the amount of weight that can be moved one time and no more (one time repetition maximum, 1 RM). Muscular Endurance A muscle's ability to exert force repeatedly without fatiguing or the ability to sustain a muscular contraction for a length of time © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Physical Activity for Physical FitnessFlexibility The range of motion, or the amount of movement possible, at a particular joint or series of joints Body Composition Describes the relative proportions of fat and lean (muscle, bone, water, organs) tissues in the body © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Getting Motivated and Committing to Your Physical FitnessIdentify your goals. Consider things that might get in the way of your goals. Consider the many physical and psychological benefits of exercise to help motivate you. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
What Are the Health Benefits of Regular Physical Activity?Reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases Reduced risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes Reduced cancer risk Improved bone mass and reduced risk of osteoporosis Improved weight management Improved immunity Improved mental health Improved stress management Longer life span © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Some Health Benefits of Regular Exercise© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Calories Burned by Different Activities© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Getting Motivated and Committing to Your Physical FitnessIdentifying Your Physical Fitness Goals SMART Goals Specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-based Overcoming Common Obstacles to Physical Activity Incorporating Physical Activity into Your Life Choose activities you like Start slow © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Fitness Program ComponentsWarm-Up Involves large body movements followed by light stretching and lasts 5–15 minutes Cardiorespiratory and/or Resistance Training The bulk of your workout should last 20–30 minutes Cool Down Transition from activity to rest, lasts 5–15 minutes © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Principles of Fitness TrainingFITT Frequency Intensity Time Type Overload You must overload the systems you are training. Reversibility If you stop training, the body responds by deconditioning. Specificity Design your program with a focus on improving particular systems. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The FITT Principle [Insert Figure 11.4] © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The FITT Principle for Cardiorespiratory FitnessACSM recommends that vigorous activities (70-90 percent of heart rate maximum) be performed for at least 20 minutes at a time, and moderate activities (50-70% of heart rate maximum) for at least 30 minutes. Target heart rate can be determined by subtracting your age from 220 (males) or 226 (females). This is your maximum heart rate (MHR). Your target heart rate is somewhere between 70 and 90% of MHR. The talk-test is the easiest but least scientific method of measuring cardiorespiratory exercise intensity. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Target Heart Rate Range© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The FITT Principle for Muscular Strength and EnduranceFrequency is 2–4 days per week of exercises that train major muscle groups, using enough repetitions and sufficient resistance to improve muscular strength and endurance. Intensity is determined using greater than 60% of your 1RM for muscular strength, and less than 60% of it for muscular endurance. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The FITT Principle for Muscular Strength and EnduranceSets and Repetitions To increase muscular strength you need higher intensity and fewer repetitions and sets. For muscular strength, use a resistance of more than 60% of your 1RM performing 1–3 sets with 2–6 repetitions per set. For muscular endurance, use less than 60% of your 1RM, 2–6 sets of 10–15 repetitions. Rest Periods Resting between exercises can reduce fatigue and help with performance and safety. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The FITT Principle for FlexibilityUses static stretching that slowly and gradually lengthens a muscle or group of muscles Minimum of 2–3 days of training, but daily training produces the most benefits Perform and hold the static stretch at the point of tension, or mild discomfort, but not pain. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Activities that Develop Multiple Components of FitnessYoga Blends mental and physical aspects of exercise, and can improve flexibility, vitality, posture, agility, balance, coordination, and muscular strength and endurance. Tai Chi Combines stretching, balance, muscular endurance, coordination, and meditation. Pilates Combines stretching with movement against resistance. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Fitness-Related InjuriesTraumatic Injuries Occur suddenly and typically by accident Include broken bones, torn ligaments and muscles, contusions, and lacerations Overuse Injuries Result from the cumulative effects of day-after-day stresses placed on tendons, muscles, and joints during exercise © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Treatment of Fitness Training-Related InjuriesRICE Rest Ice Compression Elevation © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Use appropriate footwear Use appropriate protective equipment Preventing Injuries Use appropriate footwear Use appropriate protective equipment Exercising in the heat can result in Heat cramps Heat exhaustion Heatstroke Exercising in the cold can result in Hypothermia © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
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Improving Your Personal Fitness
Basic Principles of Physical Fitness
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