Bakeshop Production: Basic Principles and Ingredients
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1 Bakeshop Production: Basic Principles and Ingredients
2 Power Point Objectives 1. Explain why it is important to weigh baking ingredients.2. Use a baker’s balance scale.3. Calculate formulas based on baker’s percentages.4. Explain the factors that control the development of gluten in baked products.5. Explain the changes that take place in a dough or batter as it bakes.6. Prevent or retard the staling of baked items.7. Describe the major ingredients of baked goods and their functions and characteristics.
3 Flour, sugar, eggs, milk, butter, flavoring - with this simple list of ingredients you can produce a seemingly endless variety of goods, from breads to sauces to pastriesAccurate measurements are critical in the bakeshopFollowing formulas carefully and completely is important
4 In years past, food service establishment produced there own breads, desserts, and other baked goods.Today, many find it more economical to buy these products from commercial bakeries.Recently, some chefs have begun to produce their own breads as a specialty item.
5 Formulas and Measurement All in ingredients must be weighed accuratelyMeasurement is critical in the bakeshopMeasurement is by weight rather than by volumeWeight is much more accurateMany bakers talk about formulas rather than recipes.
6 Baker’s PercentageBakers use a simple, versatile system of percentages for expressing formulas:Weight of ingredient X 100% = % of ingredientWeight of Flour
7 Selection of Ingredients If you substitute ingredients in baking you have to be very careful, baking is much more precise that cookingUnderstanding ingredients, why they function the way they do and how to adjust them will help to make your baking experience successful and consistent
8 Mixing and Gluten Development What is gluten?It is made up of proteins in wheat flourIt gives structure and strength to baked goodsThe proteins must absorb water
9 Controlling GlutenThe baker has several methods for adjusting gluten developmentSelection of floursThe shortening usedThe liquidMixing methods
10 The Baking Process The formation and expansion of gases Trapping the gases in air cellsCoagulation of proteinsGalvanization of starchesEvaporation of some of the waterMelting of shorteningsBrowning of the surface and crust formation
11 StalingIs the change in texture and aroma of baked goods due to a change in structure and loss of moisture by the starch granulesStaling can be slowed by:Protecting the product from airAdding moisture retainers to the formulaFreezingLoss of crispness
12 Flours White wheat flours Whole wheat flour Rye flour Bread Flour Cake FlourPastry FlourAll-purpose FlourWhole wheat flourBran FlourRye flourLightMediumDarkBeing able to identify these by sight is importantOther floursCornmealBuckwheat FlourSoy FlourPotato Flour
13 Starches: Fats Cornstarch Waxy Maize Instant starches One of the main functions of fat is to shorten gluten strands. We use fats because:To tenderize the product and soften the textureTo add moisture and richnessTo increase keeping qualitiesTo add flavorTo assist in leavening or give flakiness
15 Sugars and Sweeteners Classified as either: Simple or single sugars Double or complex sugarsRegular Refined Sugars (sucrose)Granulated sugarPowdered or Confectioners’ sugarMolasses and Brown SugarCorn syrupGlucose SyrupHoneyMalt Syrup
16 Eggs - Form of Availability Whole fresh eggsFrozen, whites, whole, whole with extra yolks.Dried