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Bakeshop Production: Basic Principles and Ingredients

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Presentation on theme: "Bakeshop Production: Basic Principles and Ingredients"— Presentation transcript:

1 Bakeshop Production: Basic Principles and Ingredients

2 Power Point Objectives
1. Explain why it is important to weigh baking ingredients. 2. Use a baker’s balance scale. 3. Calculate formulas based on baker’s percentages. 4. Explain the factors that control the development of gluten in baked products. 5. Explain the changes that take place in a dough or batter as it bakes. 6. Prevent or retard the staling of baked items. 7. Describe the major ingredients of baked goods and their functions and characteristics.

3 Flour, sugar, eggs, milk, butter, flavoring - with this simple list of ingredients you can produce a seemingly endless variety of goods, from breads to sauces to pastries Accurate measurements are critical in the bakeshop Following formulas carefully and completely is important

4 In years past, food service establishment produced there own breads, desserts, and other baked goods. Today, many find it more economical to buy these products from commercial bakeries. Recently, some chefs have begun to produce their own breads as a specialty item.

5 Formulas and Measurement
All in ingredients must be weighed accurately Measurement is critical in the bakeshop Measurement is by weight rather than by volume Weight is much more accurate Many bakers talk about formulas rather than recipes.

6 Baker’s Percentage Bakers use a simple, versatile system of percentages for expressing formulas: Weight of ingredient X 100% = % of ingredient Weight of Flour

7 Selection of Ingredients
If you substitute ingredients in baking you have to be very careful, baking is much more precise that cooking Understanding ingredients, why they function the way they do and how to adjust them will help to make your baking experience successful and consistent

8 Mixing and Gluten Development
What is gluten? It is made up of proteins in wheat flour It gives structure and strength to baked goods The proteins must absorb water

9 Controlling Gluten The baker has several methods for adjusting gluten development Selection of flours The shortening used The liquid Mixing methods

10 The Baking Process The formation and expansion of gases
Trapping the gases in air cells Coagulation of proteins Galvanization of starches Evaporation of some of the water Melting of shortenings Browning of the surface and crust formation

11 Staling Is the change in texture and aroma of baked goods due to a change in structure and loss of moisture by the starch granules Staling can be slowed by: Protecting the product from air Adding moisture retainers to the formula Freezing Loss of crispness

12 Flours White wheat flours Whole wheat flour Rye flour Bread Flour
Cake Flour Pastry Flour All-purpose Flour Whole wheat flour Bran Flour Rye flour Light Medium Dark Being able to identify these by sight is important Other flours Cornmeal Buckwheat Flour Soy Flour Potato Flour

13 Starches: Fats Cornstarch Waxy Maize Instant starches
One of the main functions of fat is to shorten gluten strands. We use fats because: To tenderize the product and soften the texture To add moisture and richness To increase keeping qualities To add flavor To assist in leavening or give flakiness

14 Shortenings Regular Shortening Emulsified Shortening
Puff Pastry Shortening Butter Margarine Oils Lard

15 Sugars and Sweeteners Classified as either: Simple or single sugars
Double or complex sugars Regular Refined Sugars (sucrose) Granulated sugar Powdered or Confectioners’ sugar Molasses and Brown Sugar Corn syrup Glucose Syrup Honey Malt Syrup

16 Eggs - Form of Availability
Whole fresh eggs Frozen, whites, whole, whole with extra yolks. Dried

17 Eggs Functions Structure Emulsification Leavening Shortening Action
Moisture Flavor Nutritional value Color

18 Leavening Agents Yeast Chemical leaveners Fermentation
Available in three forms Fresh yeast Active dry yeast Instant yeast Chemical leaveners Baking Soda Baking Powder Single acting Double acting Baking Ammonia Air Steam

19 Salt, Flavorings, and Spices
Chocolate and Cocoa Spices Extracts and Emulsions

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