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© 2010, Robert K. Moniot Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers and the Internet 1.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2010, Robert K. Moniot Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers and the Internet 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2010, Robert K. Moniot Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers and the Internet 1

2 OBJECTIVES In this chapter, you will learn: Basic facts about the Internet and World-Wide Web The client-server model of network interaction What elements and tools are used for web programming How the Web is evolving today © 2010, Robert K. Moniot2

3 The Internet Developed beginning in the 1960s, sponsored by ARPA (Dept. of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency). Communication between computers uses TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. Information is transmitted by packet switching: data is broken up into packets, which are then passed from one computer to the next until they reach their destination. This is in contrast to the phone system, which creates a temporary direct link between communicating parties. Packet switching is robust since it can route around disabled nodes and use multiple paths. But there is no guarantee packets will be delivered within any given time. 3

4 © 2010, Robert K. Moniot The Internet IP requires each connected computer to have a unique address: a number such as Clients such as home computers are generally assigned IP addresses dynamically (by DHCP) from a pool of available numbers upon connecting to the Internet. Server computers have static IP addresses. More human-friendly: names. Domain Name Service (DNS) translates between name and number. Internet names have two parts: a host name (the first component) and a domain (everything else). Example: 4

5 © 2010, Robert K. Moniot The Internet Various protocols are built on top of TCP/IP: –E-mail (SMTP) –File Transfer Protocol (FTP) –Drive and printer sharing protocols, e.g. NetBIOS –Network Time Protocol (NTP) for setting computers' clocks. –Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP): the World-Wide Web TCP requires computers to connect via numbered ports defined by the network software applications. Each protocol uses a different port. For instance, Web transactions usually use port 80. Note that the Web is just one of many protocols using the Internet. 5

6 © 2010, Robert K. Moniot The World-Wide Web Invented around 1990 by Tim Berners-Lee, a programmer at CERN (a physics lab in Geneva) to simplify sharing of information between research groups. Designed to be easy to program, easy to use, flexible and decentralized. Based on client-server model: –client computer runs a browser (e.g. Internet Explorer or Netscape) that requests information from a server –server computer runs a web server (e.g. Microsoft Internet Information Server or Apache Web Server) that listens for requests and sends back information 6

7 © 2010, Robert K. Moniot Client-Server Model Internet request response Server Client 7

8 © 2010, Robert K. Moniot Web Programming Elements XHTML: Extensible Hyper-Text Markup Language. (Formerly HTML.) Provides formatting of text and graphics, as well as links between documents. CSS: Cascading Style Sheets. Provide more powerful and detailed control of style and formatting. JavaScript: a programming language for client-side scripting, to provide dynamically changing content. Java: a more powerful programming language for web applications on the client that can also run independently of the browser. Server-side scripting and programming (SHTML, ASP, PHP, CGI). These permit access to databases and other information located on the server. 8

9 Web 2.0 Goes beyond just getting content to users Involves the users –Creating content –Commenting & reviewing –Collaborating, networking –Sharing –Categorizing –Syndicating Examples: Wikipedia, eBay, YouTube, Facebook, … © 2010, Robert K. Moniot9

10 Semantic Web Also called “Web 3.0” Web pages include embedded information about the meaning of their content Allows automation of tasks that now require humans –More intelligent searching, e.g. “Apple” Fruit Computer company Record label –Collating & combining data of interest © 2010, Robert K. Moniot10

11 © 2010, Robert K. Moniot Compatibility Unfortunately, competition between software companies has often resulted in the introduction of incompatible features so that web pages that work on one browser do not work right on a different one. The World-Wide Web Consortium ( exists to develop and define standards for HTML, CSS, However, compliance with these standards is only partial at best. –Stick to features known to be compatible –Test your web pages on as many different browsers and platforms as possible. 11

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