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Internet…issues Managing the Internet

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Presentation on theme: "Internet…issues Managing the Internet"— Presentation transcript:

1 Internet…issues Managing the Internet
Interaction between Internet components Data transmission and protocols IP addresses and domain names FTP and Telnet HTML and XLM and instant messaging NEXT SLIDE

2 Management of the Internet
Who owns the Internet? Individuals Universities Government agencies Private companies Who manages the Internet? Nonprofit organizations User groups Who pays for the Internet? US taxpayers Businesses Universities Other countries NEXT SLIDE

3 Internet Networking A network of networks: Network hierarchy T lines
Worldwide network of computer systems Communications protocols Network hierarchy T lines Network access points Points of Presence The network model NEXT SLIDE

4 Network Hierarchy Tier 1: Tier 2: Tier 3: The Internet backbone
Moves large amounts of data Provide access to Regional ISPs Tier 2: Regional ISPs Provide access to local ISPs Tier 3: Local ISPs Provide Internet access to homes and businesses Tier 3 ISP Tier 2 ISP

5 T Lines High speed fiber-optic lines T-1 line: T-2 lines: T-3 lines:
24 simultaneous voice or data channels 1.544 Mbps throughput T-2 lines: 4 T-1 lines 6.3 Mbps throughput T-3 lines: 28 T-1 lines 44.76Mbps throughput T-4 lines: 168 T-1 lines Mbps throughput

6 Network Access Points (NAPs)
Points of connection between ISPs Routers move data between networks Tier 1 ISP Routers Routers Tier 2 ISPs Tier 2 ISPs Routers

7 Points of Presence (POP)
Bank of modems where individual users connect to an ISP Other computers Your ISP Point of Presence Your computer

8 Network Model Internet communications follows the client/server network model Clients request services Servers respond to requests Types of servers include: Web servers: Host Web pages Commerce servers: Enables the purchase of goods and services over the Internet File servers: Provide remote storage space for files that users can download

9 Animation: Network Model
4. Your request goes to the National Backbone Network Click to view animation. Click once only. Network Access Point (NAP) 2. Your request goes to your ISP’s point of presence (POP). 1. You request a Web page. National Backbone Network 5. Your request goes to the Web site’s server 3. Your request goes to a Network Access Point The Web page is sent back to you in packets. YOU ARE HERE ISP’s Point of Presence (POP). Web site’s server

10 Data Transmission and Protocols
Computer protocols are rules for electronic information exchange Open system protocols: Any computer can communicate with other computers using the same protocols Circuit switching Packet switching TCP/IP NEXT SLIDE

11 Circuit Switching Dedicated connection between two points
Remains active until the transmission is terminated Telephone communications

12 Packet Switching Data is broken into small units called packets
Packets are sent over various routes to their destination Packets are reassembled by the receiving computer Packets contain: Destination/source addresses Reassembling instructions Data

13 Animation: Packet Switching
ISP New York Web Page Data Packets 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 Your ISP 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Click to view animation 25 26 27 28 29 30 ISP Virginia ISP Florida Your Computer

14 TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): Internet Protocol (IP):
Prepares data for transmission Provides error checking Enables resending lost data Internet Protocol (IP): Responsible for sending data from one computer to another

15 IP Addresses Unique number that identifies devices connected to the Internet Typical IP address: Static address: Address never changes Dynamic address: Temporary address NEXT SLIDE

16 Domain Names Name that takes the place of an IP address
Sample domain name: Top level domains (TLD): Portion of the domain name that follows the period (dot) Sample top level domain names: .com; .org; .edu; and .net Second-level domains: Unique name within a top level domain Sample second-level domain names:;; and NEXT SLIDE

17 Other Protocols File Transfer Protocol (FTP): Telnet:
File sharing protocol Files are downloaded and uploaded using the Internet Telnet: Protocol for connecting to a remote computer and a TCP/IP service Enables a client computer to control a server computer NEXT SLIDE

18 HTTP and SSL Hypertext Transfer Protocol: Secure Socket Layer:
Protocol for transferring hypertext documents Hypertext documents are linked to other documents Hyperlink Secure Socket Layer: Security protocols that protect sensitive information Encrypts data NEXT SLIDE

19 HTML Hypertext Markup Language: Format for creating Web pages
Not a programming language but a set of rules for marking up text HTML Web Page <h1>This is the Heading</h1> <p><font face="Arial">This is text using Arial font.</font></p> <p><font face="Arial"><i>This text is italicized</i>.</font></p> <p><font face="Arial"><b>This text is bold</b>.</font></p> <p><font face="Arial"><font color="#FF0000">This text color is red</font>.</font></p> <p><font face="Arial">This is a hyperlink <a href=" NEXT SLIDE

20 Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
Browsers request that a program file executes (runs) Adds Web page interaction: Adding names to guest books/mailing lists Completing forms NEXT SLIDE

21 Client-Side Application
A program that runs on a client computer with no interaction with the server Types of client-side applications include: HTML document embedded with JavaScript code Applet: Small program that resides on the server NEXT SLIDE

22 Extensible Markup Language (XML)
Designed for information exchange Tools used to create your own markup language Used in e-commerce transactions NEXT SLIDE

23 Communications Over the Internet
Created in 1971 by Ray Tomlinson Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Protocol for attaching files to security: Encryption: Private-key encryption Public-key encryption Secure data transmission software SafeMessage NEXT SLIDE

24 Instant Messaging (IM)
Client/server application program for real-time, text based conversations Popular instant messaging programs: AOL Instant Messenger ICQ Yahoo! Messenger Windows Messenger NEXT SLIDE

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