L7: 27.09.06 SOSC 103D Social Inequality in HK Lecture 7: Social Mobility.
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L7: 27.09.06 SOSC 103D Social Inequality in HK Lecture 7: Social Mobility
L7: 27.09.06 Background of HK class studies Class Structure: From triangle to diamond shape Main questions: Did the majority HK people in HK become middle-class? Are there bundles of opportunities for people to move up the social ladder? Who had moved up, and who had not? What made them to move up?
L7: 27.09.06 Social Mobility Usually refer to the vertical movement up and down the social structure of individuals a.Intergeneration Mobility Compare one’s social position with his/ her parents b.Intra-generation Mobility Compare the social position of his/ her first job and the second, third or last job before retirement
L7: 27.09.06 Social Mobility It also related to the change of economic, occupational and social structure in a society Total mobility = Structural mobility + Net mobility a.Structural mobility Caused by changes in occupational structure b.Circulation Mobility (Net Mobility) Real exchange movements within the occupational structure
L7: 27.09.06 Intergenerationally stable = the son stay in the same class as his father (N=176) Downward mobility = the son has lower social class when compare with his father (N=256) Upward mobility = the son has higher social class when compare with his father (N=320) Total mobility rate = 576/752=0.766
L7: 27.09.06 Distribution of father’s and son’s classes
L7: 27.09.06 Structural mobility = 20.4%+2.7%=23.1% –Because the shrink of certain sectors, the son could not follow his father’s footsteps. –They are forced to move away from their father’s social class. Net mobility = Total mobility – structural mobility 76.6% - 23.1% = 53.6%
L7: 27.09.06 Social Mobility in Hong Kong Findings and Observations: –Important expansion of professional, managerial and administrative posts (class I and II) The New (upper) middle class: They are from different class background (heterogeneous/ not homogeneous) –A slight shrinkage of unskilled manual workers positions (class VII) –A vast shrinkage of the small shop-owners (and self-employed artisans)
L7: 27.09.06 Readings: Wong, T & Lui, T.L. (1992) Reinstating Class: a Structural and Development Study of Hong Kong Society. Occasional Paper no.10. Hong Kong: Social Sciences Research Center, HKU. P.24-48