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Cells and Their Environment

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Presentation on theme: "Cells and Their Environment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells and Their Environment
Biology Chapter 8 Cells and Their Environment

2 Sodium-Potassium Pump
Carrier protein that uses ATP as it moves potassium ions and sodium ions across the cell membrane.

3 Cells The human body contains two hundred and ten different cell types, that are found only in humans. Every cell in the body has a sodium-potassium pump Along with that there is the fact that there are over one hundred trillion cells in the body at any given time.

4 Cells Each cell has a sodium potassium pump, this pump operates on an automatic mechanism of active movement that move the ions of potassium into the  plasma membrane of a cell and the ions of sodium out of the plasma membrane of a cell.

5 Lipid Bilayer Double layer that makes up a cell membrane

6 Concentration Gradient
The difference in the concentration of a substance across a region.

7 Facilitated Diffusion
A form of passive transport that involves membrane proteins that aid the movement of substances.

8 Active Transport The moving of a substance to an area of higher concentration, using energy

9 Passive Transport The moving of a substance to an area of lower concentration without any energy use.

10 Equilibrium The state that exists for a substance when the substance is distributed evenly across a space.

11 Hypertonic Solution

12 Hypotonic Solution

13 Isotonic Solution

14 Cells in Solutions

15 Cells The cell-surface markers identifies the cell type.

16 Cell Membranes The outer surface is polar, while the interior is nonpolar.

17 Cells By controlling what enters and leaves a cell, the cell membrane aids in maintaining homeostasis within the cell.

18 Cells Small nonpolar molecules can pass unaided through the cell membrane

19 Diffusion Is the movement of a substance down its concentration gradient

20 Facilitated Diffusion
When particles move out of a cell through facilitated diffusion, the cell does not experience any change related to energy.

21 Osmosis The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

22 Endocytosis Molecules that are too large to be moved through a cell membrane can be transported into the cell by endocytosis.

23 Osmosis If the concentration of a sugar solution is lower outside outside the cell than inside the cell, water will move into the cell

24 Sodium-Potassium Pump
Is used to remove sodium from a cell and bring potassium into a cell against their concentration gradients

25 Vesicles Endocytosis always involves the movement of a vesicle.

26 Cell Surfaces When a molecule fits into the binding site of a receptor protein on a cell’s surface The receptor can open an ion channel in the cell membrane The receptor can act as a n enzyme, causing chemical changes in the cytoplasm The receptor can cause the information of a second messenger

27 Receptor Protein Membrane receptor proteins transmit information into the cell by responding to signal molecules

28 Messengers A second messenger always carries a signal within a cell

29 Chapter 8 Test is tomorrow

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