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School Safety Training

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1 School Safety Training
Safety and Health Program

2 Notice This presentation is provided to all Educational Service District 101 (ESD 101) schools at no cost. This presentation contains copyrighted materials purchased by ESD 101 for the exclusive use of training school personnel within ESD 101. This presentation may not be reproduced except to print “handouts” or “notes pages” for use during training within ESD 101 school districts. If the school district does not have Microsoft’s PowerPoint software available, a PowerPoint viewer can be downloaded from the internet at no cost. Questions may be directed to the ESD 101 Risk Manager.

3 Goals Management’s responsibilities and commitment Hazard assessment
Hazard controls Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Training Quiz Speaker’s Notes: We will start by discussing the commitment that is required from both management and employees to have a successful safety and health program as well as some tips on how to do effective workplace and work procedure hazard assessments. Next we will discuss methods that can be used to control the hazards as well as the training that employees will need so they are aware of and understand how to protect themselves from the hazards. Finally, we will wrap up this training session with a short quiz.

4 Safe Workplace Rule WAC 296-800-11005
Provide a workplace free from recognized hazards You must “provide your employees a workplace free from recognized hazards that are causing, or are likely to cause, serious injury or death.” A hazard is recognized if it is commonly known in the employer’s industry, or, if there is evidence that the employer knew, or, should have known of the existence of the hazard, or, if it can be established that any reasonable person would have recognized the hazard. Speaker’s Notes: The Safe Workplace Rule is part of the original requirements and is the backbone of all the specific WISHA regulations. Employers are expected to provide a workplace that is free of recognized hazards. Employers are also expected to ensure that the work employees do is free of recognized hazards. Employers must evaluate the physical workplace for hazards. Employers must also evaluate the work practices and procedures for hazards. The Safe Workplace Rule requires employers to seek out and control hazards that are not addressed in a specific WISHA regulation. The Safe Workplace Rule has recently been re-codified as WAC in Washington State’s new Safety and Health Core Rules.

5 Core Elements Management leadership and commitment
Employee participation Hazard identification Hazard controls Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Information and training Program evaluation Speaker’s Notes: Just like all safety and health programs, management leadership and commitment is the motivating force that drives a successful program. Management must inherently value safety in order to have a successful program of reducing injuries and illnesses. Management must be committed, because a concentrated effort is required to maintain safety programs, conduct training, develop procedures, and correct all recognized safety hazards. Employee participation is critical to the success of a safety and health program. Employees know the day-to-day hazards of the workplace and their work practices and procedures. They also have ideas on how to effectively control the day-to-day hazards that they face. Employees will also “buy into” a safety program that they helped develop. An effective safety and health program will go beyond the requirements of specific WISHA regulations to identify and then control workplace and work practice hazards. Training employees and providing employees with the information necessary to adequately protect themselves from the hazards of their jobs is the next step. Evaluating the effectiveness of the safety and health program on a regular basis will help ensure that it is reducing injuries and illnesses. Establish result orientated goals that are expected to be achieved through the implementation of the safety and health program. Determine if those goals are being met and adjust the program or the goals accordingly.

6 Management Leadership
Recognize responsibilities of managers, supervisors, employees Designate person to respond to safety issues (Safety Program Manager) Delegate authority Provide controls and PPE Provide information and training Provide resources such as time and money Speaker’s Notes: The School District must establish safety and health program responsibilities for (site-based) managers, supervisors, and employees and hold them accountable for carrying out those responsibilities. Management must identify at least one manager, supervisor, or employee to respond to safety suggestions, reports of workplace hazards, and other safety concerns or safety issues; i.e., the district’s “Safety Program Manager.” Management must give this person the authority to initiate corrective actions to these reported safety concerns. This person has a vital role because it is very important that identified safety hazards do not fall through the cracks. Employees will stop offering ideas and suggestions if they see that nothing ever happens or changes. Management must provide supervisors and employees who are responsible for different components of the safety and health program with the authority, information, training, and resources needed to carry out their responsibilities. Delegating authority to supervisors or employees to carry out parts of the safety and health program will motivate those persons to take more responsibility for the areas with which they are charged. Supervisors, and employees will need training and information in order to effectively carryout their responsibilities under the safety and health program. Provide training and information resources such as booklets or videos. Give people the opportunity to become the “expert” in their area of the safety and health program. Allow employees to take the time to develop safe work practices and self-inspect their work areas. There should be a line item in the budget for repair or replacement of safety mandated items.

7 Management Responsibilities
Support injury and illness prevention efforts Conduct safety audits and correct deficiencies Investigate all accidents Determine cause: “action” (person) or, “condition” (place or thing) or, both Provide effective training Enforce safety rules and procedures Maintain compliance with WISHA requirements Speaker’s Notes: Responsibilities for managers and supervisors might include what is listed on this slide. Can you think of other areas that management should be responsible for? Actively support injury and illness prevention efforts by providing resources and training and giving employees authority. Conduct safety audits and correct deficiencies. It is important for employees to see that management is actively involved in different components of the safety and health program. Investigate accidents to determine the root causes and work to eliminate those causes. Provide effective training programs that improve the skill and competency of all employees in the area of occupational health. Enforce safety rules and procedures. Use disciplinary practices if necessary. Maintain compliance with all WISHA requirements.

8 Employee Responsibilities
Report work-related injuries or illnesses Report unsafe conditions or work practices Wear required PPE Do not operate machinery or power tools unless trained Use safe lifting techniques Maintain good housekeeping Speaker’s Notes: Employee responsibilities might also be referred to as safety rules. These are some examples of general safety rules. Each work area or job function should also have specific safety rules, such as which PPE is required or which procedures should be followed to operate machines safely. Can you think of some general or specific safety rules that should be included in your school district’s safety and health program? Report all work-related injuries, illnesses, symptoms, near-misses, etc. Report any unsafe working condition or unsafe work practice. Wear all required PPE and observe all safety signs. Do not operate machinery unless trained. Do a pre-operation inspection on the machine. Make sure emergency stops function correctly. Make sure all guards are in place. Use safe lifting techniques, get help from someone else, or use a material-handling aid when moving or carrying objects. Good housekeeping also plays a vital role in maintaining a safe work environment. Review the MSDS when using chemicals. Know Bloodborne Pathogens restrictions and rules.

9 Safety and Health Policy
Goal is to provide a workplace free of recognized hazards Comply with all WISHA safety standards Provide PPE Encourage employee involvement Background for the Trainer: Have a copy of your school district’s safety and health policy, if available. Make changes to the above slide to reflect the key points that are addressed in your school district’s policy. Speaker’s Notes: Administrators should develop a short safety and health policy that describes their commitment to providing a safe and healthy working environment. This slide lists the key points that might be described in such a policy. The safety and health program is the means of achieving the goal of a workplace free of recognized hazards. Reference the written Accident Prevention Program provided to your district by ESD 101. Administrators should convey their commitment to comply with all WISHA safety standards and to provide employees with all necessary PPE. The policy should also describe how administration believes that employee involvement is critical to a successful safety and health program and that the school district will work hard to respond to all employee safety concerns and suggestions.

10 Employee Participation
Communicate workplace safety issues Provide relevant safety information Know how to report accidents and hazards Contribute to, and be involved in, your school district’s safety programs Speaker’s Notes: Management should provide employees with opportunities for participation in establishing, implementing, and evaluating the safety and health program. Management should communicate with employees about workplace safety and health issues on a regular basis, discuss safety issues that have been discovered, ask employees what they think should be done and inform them what action steps have already been taken to address safety issues. Employees need to be made aware of hazards and that management is committed to correcting the hazards. Management should provide employees with access to information that is relevant to the safety and health program. This can include written hazard assessments, written safe work practices, etc. The more informed employees are about safety, the more they can help contribute to the program. Employees must know how to report job-related injuries, illnesses, near-misses or other incidents. Employees also need a way to report hazards or safety suggestions. This school district encourages employees to make reports or recommendations about workplace hazards. Forms are available in the written Accident Prevention Program. Your administrators solicit employee involvement in all safety and health programs. Employees should help identify and prioritize hazards and evaluate safe work practices and safety programs.

11 Hazard Assessment Use a variety of types of examination
Review safety and health information Conduct workplace inspections Evaluate equipment, materials, and processes Observe employees as they do their jobs Review all reported accidents Speaker’s Notes: A key part of a safety and health program is to evaluate the workplace for hazards. Many hazards will already have been identified through compliance with other specific WISHA regulations. Make an effort to identify all the hazards that each employee is potentially exposed to that could result in an injury or illness. Effective hazard assessment requires a variety of examinations such as facility inspections, job hazard assessments, safety suggestions, safety committees, accident investigations, etc. Review safety and health information such as previous accident reports, material safety data sheets (MSDS), WISHA regulations, industry specific safety information such as best management practices, safety articles, safety booklets and safety training materials. Conduct a workplace inspection with a team of people trained to identify workplace hazards. Consider using an ESD 101 or Canfield Insurance safety specialist to conduct the walkthrough with you. Evaluate proper lighting, slippery walking surfaces, access to exits and fire equipment and proper safety signage. Evaluate equipment, materials and processes for safety hazards. Equipment should have proper guards; materials should be stored so they cannot fall; and processes that require employees to perform unsafe actions should be reengineered. Observe employees as they do their normal jobs. Ask employees if they have had any near-misses or minor cuts or scrapes while doing their jobs. Look for unsafe work practices or unsafe habits. Look for unsafe lifting techniques, use of improper tools, circumventing machine guards, using ladders unsafely, opening electrical panels, etc.

12 Facility Inspections Inspect for unsafe working conditions
Inspect regularly Document the correction of unsafe conditions Involve employees in conducting self-inspections Utilize the K-12 Health & Safety Guide Speaker’s Notes: Facility inspections should be incorporated into your safety and health program. Once the initial hazard assessment is conducted, the facility should be inspected on a regular basis to make sure the hazards are still controlled and to identify additional hazards. This regular assessment may be done with a checklist. Inspect the facility for unsafe working conditions such as equipment, machines, walking surfaces, material storage, etc. Inspections should be done on a regular basis, such as once a month. When unsafe conditions are discovered, they should be corrected as soon as possible and the correction should be documented. Utilize the new Second Edition of the Washington Health and Safety Guide for K-12 schools available on the web at: Employees should be given the opportunity to do monthly, quarterly or semi-annual inspections. Inspection forms should always be updated to reflect any facility changes and employees should be involved in the updating process.

13 Facility Inspection Forms
Machines and equipment Electrical components Fire safety equipment Walking and working surfaces Chemical storage and handling General safety Background for the Trainer: Although this list of inspection items is not all-inclusive, it does provide a starting point for developing your own inspection forms or checklists. Bring copies of the your school district’s facility inspection checklists. (Use the K-12 Guide whenever possible.) Speaker’s Notes: Facility inspection forms should not encompass entire facilities but should focus on specific work areas. Make several inspection forms for large facilities. Look at machines and equipment to make sure guards are in place and adequately maintained. Have the operator demonstrate that the emergency stop devices on the machine are in proper working condition. Look at electrical components. Electrical cords should not be damaged, switches should be in closed boxes, panels should be accessible and labeled properly and there should be no evidence of overheating. Evaluate fire safety equipment such as extinguishers, fire alarms and sprinkler systems. Extinguishers should be mounted, properly pressurized, have an inspection tag and be identified from a distance with proper signage. Walking and working surfaces such as platforms, ladders, stairs and rails should be in good and safe condition. Look at general safe working conditions such as slip and trip hazards, adequate lighting, clear evacuation routes, exits marked clearly, first-aid kits adequately stocked and safety signage properly posted.

14 Safety Suggestions Employees are a valuable resource in identifying/controlling workplace hazards Designate a place to turn in suggestions Provide a form for Safety Suggestions Discuss safety suggestions at all Safety Committee meetings Review and follow up on suggestions Speaker’s Notes: A safety suggestion program is another great way to find hazards in the workplace as well as involve employees in the safety and health program. Employees are a valuable resource in identifying workplace hazards. Employees may also have great ideas about how the hazard could be effectively controlled. Safety suggestions may come in a written form but may usually be a verbal suggestion. Conducting regular Safety Committee Meetings is a great forum for employees to voice concerns and offer suggestions. For written suggestions, provide a standard form that employees can fill out as well as a designated place for employees to turn in the suggestion. Prepare for verbal suggestions by having paper and pen available to write down suggestions that are made during this class so that they are not forgotten. Review and follow up on the suggestions as soon as possible. Inform employees on the progress of all safety concerns. If employees feel that nothing is done about their ideas then they may cease providing suggestions and reporting hazards.

15 Safety Committee Consists of administration, certified and classified employees Reviews safety programs and procedures Reviews accident reports and investigations Discusses & suggests improvement to safety and to the accident prevention program Reports observations of unsafe conditions Meets (at least) four times each year Send copy of minutes to ESD 101 Risk Manager immediately after each meeting for review Speaker’s Notes: The Safety Committee is the best way to involve employees in the safety program. While the Safety Committee may have a number of specific safety-related functions, some of the core duties or responsibilities are listed on this slide. The Safety Committee should consist of both appointed and elected employees. In fact, the elected employees must outnumber the appointed employees on the Safety Committee. The Safety Committee should help review and update safety programs and safe work practices. The Committee should review accident investigations to look for other potential causal factors (i.e., workplace hazards) and to recommended corrective actions. The Committee should also be involved with reviewing safety suggestions and recommending corrective action. Review the Accident Prevention Program manual and discuss all of the duties of the Safety Committee. The Safety Committee should meet twice in the Fall Semester and twice in the Spring Semester– four times per year. A copy of the Safety Committee meeting minutes should be sent to the ESD 101 Risk Manager immediately after each meeting. The Risk Manager will review the minutes and make suggestions relating to items in the minutes.

16 Accident Investigation
Include all injuries, illnesses, first-aid incidents, and near-misses Investigate immediately Include management and employees Develop and implement corrective actions Speaker’s Notes: Supervisors must conduct an accident investigation after every accident. Investigate every injury, illness, or first-aid incident—no matter how small or minor the incident. Near-misses or close-call incidents should also be investigated. If the hazard that caused the small injury or near-miss is not discovered and corrected, a more severe accident or injury may result down the road. Immediately investigate after the incident so that all the evidence or clues will still be in place. Remember, the investigation is not intended to place blame. Instead, the investigation should look for causal factors or hazards that may have contributed to the incident. The investigation team should comprise managers and employees. Employee involvement is critical, especially if the employee is familiar with the job or work practice where the incident occurred. The employees will have the insight needed to help determine exactly what happened. Once contributing causal factors have been determined, corrected actions must be identified and implemented. ESD 101 safety specialists must be contacted after every serious accident and will assist in the investigation. If the supervisor wants the ESD specialists to assist with other accidents they are also available to do so.

17 Goals Management’s responsibilities and commitment Hazard assessment
Hazard controls Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Training Quiz Speaker’s Notes: Are there any questions regarding the commitment that is required from both management and employees to implement a successful safety and health program? What about the tips on how to do effective workplace and work procedure hazard assessments? Let’s discuss methods that can be used to control the hazards as well as the training that employees will need so that they are aware of the hazards and understand how to protect themselves.

18 Hazard Control Engineering controls Safe work practices
Administrative controls PPE

19 Safe Work Practices Develop safe work practices for each job
Perform a Hazard Analysis Inspect equipment and work area List required PPE Reference other safety procedures Speaker’s Notes: Employees should be involved in developing written safe work practices for each job. Management should ensure that employees are trained and following the safe work practices. Safe work practices should describe how the job should be done. A list of safety hazards and controls should be listed. Often, doing a job incorrectly results in additional hazards. The safe work practices should include an inspection of the work area and any equipment before beginning a job. Check the work area for any safety hazards such as slip-and-trip hazards. Then inspect the equipment to ensure all guards are in place and the emergency stop devices all work. The safe work practices will also list required and recommended PPE for each job step. Reference other safety procedures required to do the job such as lockout/tagout, hot work permits, confined space entry procedures, etc.

20 Safety Disciplinary Policy
Knowing or intentional violation of safety rule or safe work practice 1st offense— verbal or written warning 2nd offense— written warning or suspension 3rd offense— suspension or termination Background for the Trainer: Make changes to the above slide to reflect your school district’s safety disciplinary policy. Speaker’s Notes: Another way management can control hazards is by developing and implementing a safety disciplinary policy to help control employee behavior. When enforced consistently, it will show employees that management is serious about safety and when an employee, supervisor, or manager knowingly or willingly violates a safety rule or work practice that person will be disciplined. Depending on the severity of the safety violation, the consequences can be suspension or termination. For safety violations that do not present an immediate hazard, following the above guideline for first, second, and third offense can be effective.

21 Safety Leadership Motivate safe behavior by employees
Encourage (require) use of PPE Recognition for safety suggestions Encourage reporting of near-miss incidents Recognition for involvement in the safety committee and/or the safety and health program Speaker’s Notes: Personal recognition is the best way to encourage safe behavior and motivate employees to follow safe work practices, use correct lifting techniques, use material handling aids, inspect equipment and machinery, and practice good housekeeping. Employees must be encouraged to wear the required and recommended PPE. They will feel satisfaction when recognized after they make the extra effort to put on their PPE such as fall-protection, work gloves, appropriate face protection, etc. Employees should be encouraged to report unsafe conditions and/or provide safety suggestions. Near-miss incidents should be investigated and corrective actions can be implemented.

22 Conduct Training Safety orientation for all new employees
When new processes or procedures are introduced As required by WISHA regulations When safety performance has been slipping Following an injury accident To keep employee safety awareness at a high level Speaker’s Notes: Once hazards and hazard control techniques have been identified, it is time to train employees. New employees or transferred employees should be trained before they are initially assigned to a job that exposes them to hazards. All employees should be trained when new processes or new procedures are introduced. The hazards and control techniques will usually change and employees must be made aware of these changes. Training should also be conducted as required by specific WISHA regulations. Evaluate safety performance of employees, and if it begins to slip, retraining may be necessary. Annual training refreshers should be conducted even if safety performance is not slipping. Training should be done to keep employee safety awareness at a high level. If the safety message is continually put in front of employees they begin to take hazards seriously and follow safe work practices.

23 Training Topics Contents of safety and health program
How to recognize workplace hazards Hazard prevention and controls Specific job safety and health assessments Specific safe work practices Hazard analysis of specific jobs Speaker’s Notes: Employees should be trained on the contents of the safety and health program including management commitment, employee involvement, hazard assessment, hazard control and employee training requirements. They must be made aware of the hazards of their work environment and their work practices. Additionally, employees should be taught how to recognize hazards so that they can provide safety suggestions and identify unsafe conditions. Employees should be informed of the steps that have been taken to control identified hazards. Specific engineering controls, safe work practices, administrative controls and any new PPE that has been purchased should be discussed. Train workers based on the hazard-analysis that your school district has conducted for each specific job. Go into the workplace and point out the specific hazards and the control measures. Review specific safe work practices that have been developed for the various jobs and work procedures. Have employees demonstrate that they know the safe work practices and can do them step by step.

24 Recordkeeping Document the following: Safety training Hazard analysis
Safe work practices Facility inspections Safety committee recommendations Accident investigations (Schools are exempt from “OSHA 300” requirements) Speaker’s Notes: Document safety and health training and include the date(s) of training, names and signatures of trainees, topic(s) discussed and the instructor. Safe work practices must also be documented and certified. Employee violations of safe work practices or other safety rules should also be documented to show that employees are disciplined when safety procedures are violated. Document facility inspections. Completed checklists should be filed. Also, any discrepancies should be corrected. Corrected discrepancies must also be documented to prove that management not only identifies hazards but also corrects them. Safety committee minutes must be documented to show what was discussed and to record that any hazards or suggestions brought up were investigated and addressed appropriately and in a timely fashion by management. Document accident investigations and the fact that corrective actions were identified and implemented.

25 Program Evaluation Review the effectiveness of the school district’s safety program Update components annually Update if significant changes are made to facility or operations Involve certified and classified employees Speaker’s Notes: In order to ensure the effectiveness of the safety and health program, it must be reviewed on a consistent basis to make sure all components are working together to prevent injuries and illnesses. Update the components on an annual basis including hazard analysis, safe work practices and facility inspection forms. If there is any significant change to the facility or its operations, update the components of the safety and health program to identify any new hazards and implement new control measures. Employee involvement on all levels is critical. Employees should be involved from the beginning by doing hazard assessments, developing safe practices, implementing safety suggestions and conducting the safety training. Evaluate the program to make sure employees are involved at all levels.

26 Goals Management’s responsibilities and commitment Hazard assessment
Hazard controls Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Training Quiz Speaker’s Notes: Are there any questions regarding methods that can be used to control the hazards as well as the training that employees will need so they are aware of the hazards and understand how to protect themselves? Let’s wrap up this training session with a short summary and a quiz.

27 Summary Management’s committed leadership Employee involvement
Hazard assessments Control of workplace hazards Personal Protective Equipment Employee training

28 Quiz The Safe Workplace Rule requires employers to provide a workplace free of what? Name one thing that management can do to show commitment to the safety and health program. Name one thing employees can do to be involved in the safety and health program. The workplace should be inspected for unsafe conditions annually. True or False Name two general items to look at when doing a facility self-inspection. Speaker’s Notes: Just relax. This quiz will help us review the information as well as make sure you understand what we discussed today.

29 Quiz (cont.) When identifying hazard control measures, control with PPE first. True or False What is the goal of an accident investigation? Name one way to encourage employees to follow safe work practices. Name one of the topics that employees should be trained on. Why is it important for employees to be involved in the safety and health program?

30 Quiz Answers The workplace must be free of recognized safety & health related hazards. Conduct safety audits, investigate accidents, provide training, or support employee involvement. Report injuries, report unsafe conditions, wear PPE, etc. False. Self-inspect the facility on a more regular basis, such as monthly. Machines, electrical components, fire safety equipment, walking surfaces, etc.

31 Quiz Answers (cont.) False. First look at engineering controls. Look at PPE last. Determine causal factors and corrective actions. Safety disciplinary policy and/or personal recognition. Hazards of their job, control measures, or safe work practices. Employees know best the hazards of their job.

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