Presentation on theme: "Biogeochemical Cycles of Matter How the earth RECYCLES"— Presentation transcript:
1 Biogeochemical Cycles of Matter How the earth RECYCLES Identify and describe the flow of nutrients in each biogeochemical cycle.Explain the impact that humans have on the biogeochemical cycles.
2 Biogeochemical Cycles “Bio” -Biology“Geo” -Geology“Chemical” -ChemistryElements, chemical compounds & other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another in cycles.
3 Biogeochemical Cycles All MATTER IS RECYCLED by:Atmospheric GassesBodies of WaterAbiotic Factors (non-living)Ex. Rocks, SoilBiotic Organisms (living)Ex. Plants, Animals, Decomposers
4 Earth Reuses & Recycles Figure 3.32Natural capital: simplified model of the sulfur cycle. The movement of sulfur compounds in living organisms is shown in green, blue in aquatic systems, and orange in the atmosphere. QUESTION: What are three ways in which your lifestyle directly or indirectly affects the sulfur cycle?How do humans impact this process?
5 Life on Earth Requires Ecosystems survive using: Energy Transfer Cycling of MatterGravity
6 Matter Recycle and Energy Flow Matter is recycled globally.Energy is transferred universally.
7 Don’t forget….. Law of Conservation of Energy ENERGY is NOT recycledLaw of Conservation of Energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transferred or transformed from one form to another
8 Types of Thermal Energy Transfer Conduction - transfer of energy through from particle to particle (metal spoon in pot)
9 Types of Thermal Energy Transfer Convection - transfer of heat energy by the movement of the warmed matter such as in a gas or liquid (steam from hot coffee, hot-air balloon)
10 Types of Thermal Energy Transfer Radiation - waves that directly transport energy through space (sunlight)
11 Examples of Energy Transfer What are other examples?video
12 Photosynthesis Autotrophic (producers) do this process to make energy. Sunlight6 CO2CO26 H2OC6H12O6Sugar++6 O2O2Autotrophic (producers) do this process to make energy.Need: Carbon Dioxide, Sunlight and WaterProduces: Sugar, and Oxygen
13 Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 Sugar + 6 O2 O2 6 CO2 CO2 + 6 H2O Plants also undergo Cellular Respiration when conditions don’t favor photosynthesis. .Need: Sugar, and OxygenProduces: Carbon Dioxide and Water
14 The Carbon-Oxygen Connection The processes of PHOTOSYNTHESIS and RESPIRATION are connected becausePhotosynthesis takes in CO2 and produces O2, USING energy & Respiration takes in O2 and produces CO2, RELEASING energy
15 JIGSAW GROUP ACTIVITYOne person from each table will become an expert on their cycle.Each expert will report back to their table and teach a lesson on their cycle.Every expert must record the information while researching.All students will illustrate and explain each of the cycles in their notebook by the end of class.
16 JIGSAW GROUP ACTIVITY EXPECTATIONS : Research & understand the process of the biogeochemical cycle you are to become an expert on.In your notebook or on paper, draw and illustrate the cycle with explanations. You will use this to teach the other members of your group.
17 JIGSAW GROUP ACTIVITY INCLUDE: CYCLE DIAGRAMEXPLANATION / BULLET POINTSANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS FOR EACH CYCLE:Why is this cycle important to the ecosystem?What are 2 ways humans may impact the cycle?Are they positive or negative?
19 Water Cycle FactsThere are strong forces of attraction between molecules of water.Water exists as a liquid over a wide temperature range.Liquid water changes temperature slowly.It takes a large amount of energy for water to evaporate.Liquid water can dissolve a variety of compounds.Water expands when it freezes.
20 Condensation Transpiration Evaporation Precipitation Precipitation Rain cloudsTranspirationEvaporationPrecipitation to landTranspiration from plantsPrecipitationPrecipitationEvaporation from landEvaporation from oceanSurface runoff (rapid)RunoffPrecipitation to oceanInfiltration and PercolationSurface runoff (rapid)Figure 3.26Natural capital: simplified model of the hydrologic cycle.Groundwater movement (slow)Ocean storageFig. 3-26, p. 72
21 Effects of Human Activities on Water Cycle We alter the water cycle by:Withdrawing large amounts of freshwater.Clearing vegetation and eroding soils.Polluting surface and underground water.Contributing to climate change.
25 Effects of Human Activities on the Nitrogen Cycle We alter the nitrogen cycle by:Adding gases that contribute to acid rain.Adding nitrous oxide to the atmosphere through farming practices which can warm the atmosphere and deplete ozone.Contaminating ground water from nitrate ions in inorganic fertilizers.Releasing nitrogen into the troposphere through deforestation.
26 Effects of Human Activities on the Nitrogen Cycle Human activities such as production of fertilizers now fix more nitrogen than all natural sources combined.Figure 3-30
35 Effects of Human Activities on the Phosphorous Cycle We remove large amounts of phosphate from the earth to make fertilizer.We reduce phosphorous in tropical soils by clearing forests.We add excess phosphates to aquatic systems from runoff of animal wastes and fertilizers.
36 The Sulfur Cycle - Atmospheric sulfur Volatilization Atmospheric ComponentInput to soilLoss from soilAtmosphericsulfurVolatilizationAtmosphericdepositionCropharvestSO2 gasMineralfertilizersPlantresiduesAnimalmanuresand biosolidsElementalsulfurRunoff anderosionAbsorbed ormineral sulfurPlantuptakeOxidationOrganicsulfurBacterial oxidationReduced sulfurImmobilizationSulfateSulfur(SO4)Bacterial reductionMineralization-Leaching
37 Effects of Human Activities on the Sulfur Cycle We add sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere by:Burning coal and oilRefining sulfur containing petroleum.Convert sulfur-containing metallic ores into free metals such as copper, lead, and zinc releasing sulfur dioxide into the environment.
38 Transformations Examples of Transformations Carbon cycle: Organic compounds to CO2 (processes: respiration, decomposition, or fire)Carbon cycle: CO2 to organic compounds (process: photosynthesis)Nitrogen cycle: N2 to NO3 (atmospheric nitrogen to plant utilizable nitrate) (process: N-fixation)Nitrogen cycle: N2 to NH3 (plant utilizable ammonia) (process: Haber-Bosch Industrial N-fixation)Water cycle: Liquid water to water vapor (process: evaporation and evapo-transpiration)Water cycle: Water vapor to liquid water (process: condensation)
39 The Gaia Hypothesis: Is the Earth Alive? Some have proposed that the earth’s various forms of life control or at least influence its chemical cycles and other earth-sustaining processes.The strong Gaia hypothesis: life controls the earth’s life-sustaining processes.The weak Gaia hypothesis: life influences the earth’s life-sustaining processes.