2 Setting Central to the mood or tone of the story Creates a sense of dread or forebodingLots of descriptive language
3 Ancient Prophecy or Ancestral Curse The burden or ripple effect of past actionsProphecy fulfilled through actionsA link in a chain of events that has to happen in order for there to be peace or rest.
4 Supernatural Elements Gothic authors capitalize on fearFascination with the unexplainable
5 Unreliable NarratorThe narrator tells the story, thus determining the point of view.Unreliable narrators mess with our minds as readers or viewers.An unreliable narrator doesn’t fully understands the situation or draws incorrect conclusions.Sometimes we know more than the narrator, or sometimes we are just as confused or limited in our knowledge.
6 Pursued ProtagonistA protagonist is the leading character or most prominent character in a story.The pursued protagonist is haunted by a curse, pressed on by a force, or experiences some unavoidable persecution.
7 Damsel in DistressGirls were often seen as weak and squeamish, running away from danger or anything frighteningCan be a cathartic character, or a character whose reaction or actions provide a way to experience/release the fear or apprehension we feel as readers.
8 Revenge Repaying someone for a harm caused Can be enacted by mortals or supernatural forces
9 - Secret Passageways & Doors - Mist These elements add to suspense in the setting, allow for plot twists to developFear of what we cannot see or understand
10 Sleep – Dreams - Nightmares Sleep as a form of deathDreams as mental activity outside the realm of controlDreams and nightmares dredge up feelings or thoughts or questions that are suppressed or do not occur when conscious.Dreams can reveal what a character is too afraid to realize in waking moments.Dreams and nightmares can also be a method of foreshadowing.
11 Claustrophobia – Entrapment - Imprisonment Claustrophobia is an extreme or irrational fear of confined spaces.Sense of no way out.Tombs, secret rooms, towers, closets, etc.Victim’s sense of helplessness
12 Doppelganger German word meaning “look alike,” or “double walker.” Can be a look-alike, a twin, a shadow of another person, the double of someone, alter ego, or their ghost.
13 Haunted House or Castle Inhabited or visited by spiritsAbandoned or partially emptyParts of the house do not function
14 SuperstitionBeliefs or rituals held or exercised in an attempt to avoid or control outcomes.
15 Somnambulism Sleepwalking Dissociated mental state Characters sometimes reveal intentions or desires
16 Graveyard Place where dead are buried Cemetery, catacombs, tombs, churchyard, or cryptA place where supernatural can occurA place where the living can connect with the dead
18 MetonymyMetonymy: noun: the substitution of the name of an attribute for that of the thing meant, for example suit for business executive, or the track for horse racing.Squeaky, creaky doorsFootsteps approachingSighs, howls, moans, etcClanking chainsDoors slamming suddenly shutIn Gothic Lit, it is a comparison created between the audible or visual characteristic and what it evokes in the reader.Crazed laughterWolves howlingThunder and lightningMetonymies that suggest danger or mystery:Ruins of buildingsWind, especially howlingRain