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**Hardy Weinberg: Population Genetics**

Using mathematical approaches to calculate changes in allele frequencies…this is evidence of evolution.

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**Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium**

Hypothetical, non-evolving population preserves allele frequencies natural populations rarely in H-W equilibrium useful model to measure if forces are acting on a population measuring evolutionary change G.H. Hardy (the English mathematician) and W. Weinberg (the German physician) independently worked out the mathematical basis of population genetics in Their formula predicts the expected genotype frequencies using the allele frequencies in a diploid Mendelian population. They were concerned with questions like "what happens to the frequencies of alleles in a population over time?" and "would you expect to see alleles disappear or become more frequent over time?" G.H. Hardy mathematician W. Weinberg physician

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**Evolution of populations**

Evolution = change in allele frequencies in a population hypothetical: what conditions would cause allele frequencies to not change? very large population size (no genetic drift) no migration (no gene flow in or out) no mutation (no genetic change) random mating (no sexual selection) no natural selection (everyone is equally fit) H-W occurs ONLY in non-evolving populations!

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**Populations & gene pools**

Concepts a population is a localized group of interbreeding individuals gene pool is collection of alleles in the population remember difference between alleles & genes! allele frequency is how common is that allele in the population how many A vs. a in whole population

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**H-W formulas Alleles: p + q = 1 Individuals: p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 B b BB**

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**Origin of the Equation p2 + 2pq + q2**

Assuming that a trait is recessive or dominant Allele pairs AA, Aa, aa would exist in a population p + q = 1 The probability that an individual would contribute an A is called p The probability that an individual would contribute an a is called q Because only A and a are present in the population the probability that an individual would donate one or the other is 100% p2 + 2pq + q2 Male Gametes A(p) Male Gametes a(q) Female gametes A(p) AA p2 Aa pq Female Gametes a(q) aa q2

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**Hardy-Weinberg theorem**

Counting Alleles assume 2 alleles = B, b frequency of dominant allele (B) = p frequency of recessive allele (b) = q frequencies must add to 1 (100%), so: p + q = 1 Frequencies are usually written as decimals! BB Bb bb

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**Hardy-Weinberg theorem**

Counting Individuals frequency of homozygous dominant: p x p = p2 frequency of homozygous recessive: q x q = q2 frequency of heterozygotes: (p x q) + (q x p) = 2pq frequencies of all individuals must add to 1 (100%), so: p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 BB Bb bb

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Practice Problem: In a population of 100 cats, there are 16 white ones. White fur is recessive to black. What are the frequencies of the genotypes?

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**Use Hardy-Weinberg equation!**

q2 (bb): 16/100 = .16 q (b): √.16 = 0.4 p (B): = 0.6 p2=.36 2pq=.48 q2=.16 BB Bb bb Must assume population is in H-W equilibrium! What are the genotype frequencies?

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**Answers: Assuming H-W equilibrium: Expected data Observed data**

2pq=.48 q2=.16 Assuming H-W equilibrium: Expected data BB Bb bb p2=.20 p2=.74 2pq=.10 2pq=.64 q2=.16 q2=.16 Sampled data 1: Hybrids are in some way weaker. Immigration in from an external population that is predomiantly homozygous B Non-random mating... white cats tend to mate with white cats and black cats tend to mate with black cats. Sampled data 2: Heterozygote advantage. What’s preventing this population from being in equilibrium. bb Bb BB Observed data How do you explain the data? How do you explain the data?

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**Tips for Solving HW Problems:**

Solve for q first. Then solve for p. Don’t assume you can just solve for p2 if only given dominant phenotypic frequency. READ carefully!!! HW Math is fun

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Homework: Answer all the questions on the “Hardy Weinburg Practice Problems” handout Complete the following prelab questions: List the conditions for a Hardy-Weinberg Population. Write a hypothesis for expected allele outcome for Case 1. Write down the formula of how to determine the allele frequencies. Write a hypothesis for expected allele outcome for Case 2. Write a hypothesis for expected allele outcome for Case 3.

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