7 Components of Communication SenderMessageReceiverFeedback
8 Components of Communication The two common elements in communication are the sender and receiver.The sender is the one who conveys an idea or concept to others, to seek information or to express a thought or emotion.The receiver is the person to whom the message is sent.
9 One-Way and Two-Way Communication One-Way Communication:Information flows only in one direction – from the sender to the receiver with no feedbackA much common way of communication because it is faster and easier for the sender and there is no trouble from disagreement.There may be mistakes in transmission of information.
10 One-Way and Two-Way Communication A process in which information flows in two-directions –the receiver provides feedback and the sender receptive to the feedback.It is more accurate and fewer mistakes in transmission.But it is time-consuming and more difficult for the sender.
11 Communication Process Transmission of a message from a sender to a receiver in an understandable manner.”
12 Communication Process EncodeMessageChannelDecodeFeedback
13 The Communication Process EncodeTo select symbols with which to compose a message.MessageThe tangible formulation of an idea to be sent to a receiver.ChannelThe carrier of a communication.DecodeTo translate the symbols used in a message for the purpose of interpreting its meaning.FeedbackA response by the receiver to the sender’s communication.
14 Organizational Communication VerticalInformation passes downwards or upwards in the organization.Downward communication means that the manager tells employees about a decision that has been already made. It allows decisions to carried out quickly.Upward communication refers to employees’ giving feedback to the manager about the decision. It helps managers to understand employees’ ideas on the decisionHorizontalPeople in the same level within an organization pass information to each other.It can strengthen the understanding and coordination between people in different departments.
15 Vertical Downward Communication: Refers to the messages and information sent from top management to subordinates in a downward direction.It usually encompasses the following five topics:
16 Downward Communication: 1. Implementation of goals and strategies:Communicating new strategies & goals provides information about specific targets & expected behaviors.2. Job instructions and rationaleThese are directives on how to do a specific task and how the job relates to other organizational activities.
17 Downward Communication: 3. Procedures and PracticesThese are messages defining the organizations policies, rules, regulations, benefits and structural arrangements.4. Performance feedbackThese messages appraise how well individuals and departments are doing their jobs.
18 Downward Communication: 5. IndoctrinationThese messages are designed to motivate employees to adopt the company’s mission and cultural values to participate in special ceremonies.
19 Upward CommunicationThese are the messages that flow from the lower to the higher levels in the organization. Most organizations take pains to build in healthy channels for upward communication. Employees need to report progress, and provide feedback on management initiatives.Many organizations make a great effort to facilitate upward communication. Mechanisms include suggestion boxes, employee surveys, open-door policies, management information system reports, & face to face conversations between workers and executives.
20 Upward Communication Five types of information communicated upward : 1. Problems & ExceptionsThese messages describe serious problems with & exceptions to routine performance in order to make senior managers aware of difficulties.2. Suggestions for ImprovementThese messages are ideas for improving task related procedures to increase quality or efficiency.
21 Upward Communication3. Performance Report These messages include periodic reports that inform management how individuals & departments are performing. 4. Grievances & Disputes These messages are employee complaints & conflicts that travel up the hierarchy for a hearing & possible resolution.
22 Upward Communication 5. Financial & Accounting Information These messages relate to costs, accounts receivable, sales volume, anticipated profits, return on investment & other matters of interest to senior managers.
23 HorizontalIt is the lateral exchange of messages among peers or coworkers. It may occur within or across departments. The objective of horizontal communication is to inform, request support and coordinate activities.It is particularly important in learning organizations, where teams of workers are continuously solving problems & searching for new ways of doing things.
24 Horizontal Three categories of Horizontal communication: Interdepartmental problem solvingThese messages take place among members of the same department and concern task accomplishment.Interdepartmental coordinationInterdepartmental messages facilitate the accomplishment of joint projects or tasks.Change initiatives & improvementsThese messages are designed to share information among teams & departments that can help the organization change, grow & improve.
25 Communication Channels Written communicationOral communicationElectronic communication
26 Written Communication Communication through:Letters, Memos, Reports, Forms , Notice boards and Internal magazines or newspapersMessages can be revised several times.The sender can not receive immediate feedback.
27 Oral CommunicationFace-to-face discussions, telephone conservations, formal presentations and speechesAdvantages: Questions can be asked and answered directly; feedback is immediate; and the sender’s attitude can be sensed.Disadvantages: few permanent records
28 Electronic Communication Communication through electronic media such as mobile phone, paging devises, lap top computers, , fax machines, and electronic notice boardsMessages can be delivered instantly, over long distances, and to a large number of people.But not all people have can access to the media.
29 Communication Channels It is important to understand that each communication Channel has advantages and disadvantages and each can be an effective means of communication in the appropriate circumstances. Channel selection depends on whether the message is routine or non-routine.Non-routine messages – typically ambiguous, concern novel events, & impose great potential for misunderstanding, time pressure and surprise.Routine messages – convey data or statistics or simply put into words what was agreed upon.