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Health Services Administration

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Presentation on theme: "Health Services Administration"— Presentation transcript:

1 Health Services Administration

2 Communication 1436/5/12

3 Learning Objectives Definition. Components of communication.
Communication Process. Communication Channels.

4 What is Communication:
Communication is about sending and receiving information or the transmission of information and meaning from one party to another through using shared symbols.

5 Definition. The process by which information is exchanged between individuals, departments, or organizations.

6 Components of Communication

7 Components of Communication
Sender Message Receiver Feedback

8 Components of Communication
The two common elements in communication are the sender and receiver. The sender is the one who conveys an idea or concept to others, to seek information or to express a thought or emotion. The receiver is the person to whom the message is sent.

9 One-Way and Two-Way Communication
One-Way Communication: Information flows only in one direction – from the sender to the receiver with no feedback A much common way of communication because it is faster and easier for the sender and there is no trouble from disagreement. There may be mistakes in transmission of information.

10 One-Way and Two-Way Communication
A process in which information flows in two-directions –the receiver provides feedback and the sender receptive to the feedback. It is more accurate and fewer mistakes in transmission. But it is time-consuming and more difficult for the sender.

11 Communication Process
Transmission of a message from a sender to a receiver in an understandable manner.”

12 Communication Process
Encode Message Channel Decode Feedback

13 The Communication Process
Encode To select symbols with which to compose a message. Message The tangible formulation of an idea to be sent to a receiver. Channel The carrier of a communication. Decode To translate the symbols used in a message for the purpose of interpreting its meaning. Feedback A response by the receiver to the sender’s communication.

14 Organizational Communication
Vertical Information passes downwards or upwards in the organization. Downward communication means that the manager tells employees about a decision that has been already made. It allows decisions to carried out quickly. Upward communication refers to employees’ giving feedback to the manager about the decision. It helps managers to understand employees’ ideas on the decision Horizontal People in the same level within an organization pass information to each other. It can strengthen the understanding and coordination between people in different departments.

15 Vertical Downward Communication:
Refers to the messages and information sent from top management to subordinates in a downward direction. It usually encompasses the following five topics:

16 Downward Communication:
1. Implementation of goals and strategies: Communicating new strategies & goals provides information about specific targets & expected behaviors. 2. Job instructions and rationale These are directives on how to do a specific task and how the job relates to other organizational activities.

17 Downward Communication:
3. Procedures and Practices These are messages defining the organizations policies, rules, regulations, benefits and structural arrangements. 4. Performance feedback These messages appraise how well individuals and departments are doing their jobs.

18 Downward Communication:
5. Indoctrination These messages are designed to motivate employees to adopt the company’s mission and cultural values to participate in special ceremonies.

19 Upward Communication These are the messages that flow from the lower to the higher levels in the organization. Most organizations take pains to build in healthy channels for upward communication. Employees need to report progress, and provide feedback on management initiatives. Many organizations make a great effort to facilitate upward communication. Mechanisms include suggestion boxes, employee surveys, open-door policies, management information system reports, & face to face conversations between workers and executives.

20 Upward Communication Five types of information communicated upward :
1. Problems & Exceptions These messages describe serious problems with & exceptions to routine performance in order to make senior managers aware of difficulties. 2. Suggestions for Improvement These messages are ideas for improving task related procedures to increase quality or efficiency.

21 Upward Communication 3. Performance Report These messages include periodic reports that inform management how individuals & departments are performing. 4. Grievances & Disputes These messages are employee complaints & conflicts that travel up the hierarchy for a hearing & possible resolution.

22 Upward Communication 5. Financial & Accounting Information
These messages relate to costs, accounts receivable, sales volume, anticipated profits, return on investment & other matters of interest to senior managers.

23 Horizontal It is the lateral exchange of messages among peers or coworkers. It may occur within or across departments. The objective of horizontal communication is to inform, request support and coordinate activities. It is particularly important in learning organizations, where teams of workers are continuously solving problems & searching for new ways of doing things.

24 Horizontal Three categories of Horizontal communication:
Interdepartmental problem solving These messages take place among members of the same department and concern task accomplishment. Interdepartmental coordination Interdepartmental messages facilitate the accomplishment of joint projects or tasks. Change initiatives & improvements These messages are designed to share information among teams & departments that can help the organization change, grow & improve.

25 Communication Channels
Written communication Oral communication Electronic communication

26 Written Communication
Communication through: Letters, Memos, Reports, Forms , Notice boards and Internal magazines or newspapers Messages can be revised several times. The sender can not receive immediate feedback.

27 Oral Communication Face-to-face discussions, telephone conservations, formal presentations and speeches Advantages: Questions can be asked and answered directly; feedback is immediate; and the sender’s attitude can be sensed. Disadvantages: few permanent records

28 Electronic Communication
Communication through electronic media such as mobile phone, paging devises, lap top computers, , fax machines, and electronic notice boards Messages can be delivered instantly, over long distances, and to a large number of people. But not all people have can access to the media.

29 Communication Channels
It is important to understand that each communication Channel has advantages and disadvantages and each can be an effective means of communication in the appropriate circumstances. Channel selection depends on whether the message is routine or non-routine. Non-routine messages – typically ambiguous, concern novel events, & impose great potential for misunderstanding, time pressure and surprise. Routine messages – convey data or statistics or simply put into words what was agreed upon.

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