9 Practices which are most cost-effective in prevention of faecal-oral diseases 1. Preventing faeces from gaining access to the environment; 2. Handwashing, after defecation and before touching food; 3. Maintaining drinking water free from faecal contamination.
10 Technical Models of Health Promotion Environmental ApproachesEcological ModelSocial Marketing ModelPolitical Economy ModelPrecede-Proceed FrameworkSocial Responsibility ModelLife Cycle ModelsStages of ChangeInnovation Diffusion TheoryHealth, Attitude, Belief, and Behavior Change ApproachesHealth Belief ModelTheory of Reasoned ActionTheory of Planned BehaviorProspect TheorySocial Learning TheoriesHealth Action Model
12 Socio-ecological Model The socio-ecological model recognizes the interwoven relationship that exists between the individual and their environment.Individual behavior is determined to a large extent by social environment, e.g. community norms and values, regulations, and policies.Barriers to healthy behaviors shared among the community as a whole. Lowering these barriers makes behavior change more achievable and sustainable.The most effective approach - a combination of the efforts at all levels--individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and public policy.
13 Stages of Change Precontemplation (i.e. considering the change) Contemplation of change (i.e. starting to think about initiating change)Contemplation without actionPreparation (i.e. seriously thinking about the change within a given time period (e.g. the next 6 months) or taking early steps to change)Action (i.e. making change in or stopping the target behavior within a 6-month period)Maintenance of change (i.e. maintaining the target behavior change for more than 6 months)In some cases, relapse
14 Diffusion of innovations model Innovator (2.5%): need for novelty and need to be differentEarly Adopter (13.5%): recognize the value of adoption from contact with innovatorsEarly Majority (34%): need to imitate or match up with others with a certain amount of deliberatenessLate Majority (34%): need to join the bandwagon when they see that the early majority has legitimated the changeLaggard (16%): need to respect traditions
16 Health Belief ModelPerceived susceptibility: the subjective perception of risk of developing a particular health condition.Perceived severity: feelings about the seriousness of the consequences of developing a specific health problem.Perceived benefits: beliefs about the effectiveness of various actions that might reduce susceptibility and severity (the latter two taken together are labeled “threat’).Perceived barriers: potential negative aspects of taking specific actions.Self-efficacy: belief that s/he will be able to do it.Cues to action: bodily or environmental events that trigger action.
18 Theory of Reasoned Action Theory of Planned Behavior
19 Social Cognitive Theory Self-efficacy: a judgment of one’s capability to accomplish a certain level of performance.Outcome expectation: a judgment of the likely consequence such behavior will produce.Outcome expectancies: the value placed on the consequences of the behavior.Emotional coping responses: strategies used to deal with emotional stimuli including psychological defenses (denial, repression), cognitive techniques such as problem restructuring, and stress management.Enactive learning: learning from the consequences of one’s actions (versus observational learning).Rule learning: generating and regulating behavioral patterns, most often achieved through vicarious processes and capabilities (versus direct experience).Self-regulatory capability: much of behavior is motivated and regulated by internal standards and self-evaluative reactions to their own actions.
20 When learning, people remember 20% of what they hear, 40% of what they hear and see, and 80% of what they discover for themselves. - Hope and Timmel 1984:103)
21 Social Learning Models Social learning theory is derived from the work of Gabriel Tarde ( ) which proposed that social learning occurred through four main stages of limitation:close contact,imitation of superiors,understanding of concepts,role model behaviour
23 Integrated Model of Communication for Social Change (IMCSC) An iterative process where ‘community dialogue’ and “collective action” work together to produce social change in a community that improves the health and welfare of all its members.COMMUNITYDIALOGUECOLLECTIVEACTIONSOCIETALIMPACTCATALYSTINFORMATION EQUITYSOCIAL CAPITAL