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Published byDamon Wilkins Modified over 7 years ago
AGE OF EXPLORATION (1450-1750)
Exploration (1450-1750) 1271-1275: during Middle Ages, Marco Polo tells Europeans about China (people become interested about Far East) Italy (Genoa/Venice) dominates trade with Asia for spices. Other countries either break monopoly or find other route to the Far East.
Innovations Compass Astrolabe (perfected by Muslims) used to determine a ships latitude 1400’s European ships worse than Chinese, Arab, Indian ships 1600’s European ships best in world Ships with triangular sails could sail with or against the wind
Portugal 1415 began exploring west coast of Africa 1439 Portuguese concerned that if Turks control Constantinople they would cut of trade of charge higher prices for trading 1441 discover Africa’s Gold Coast
Portugal Prince Henry the Navigator built navigation school and financed voyages Reasons: 1) win new lands for Christianity 2) acquire share of African slave trade, gold trade 3) gain trade with China and India for spices
Portugal Problems with Exploring further south –Sailed using north star which you can’t see when you travel south of the equator Solution: –Toscanelli created a map of the world using grid lines but was inaccurate because Marco Polo exaggerated the size on Eurasia. This made the route west across the ocean look shorter than it actually was. –Toscanelli gave his maps to a captain in 1483 who proposed to sail west but was rejected by the officials in Portugal. He was financed to sail his proposed route by Spain. His name: Christopher Columbus!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Portugal (Explorers) 1487: Bartholomeu Dias sailed around tip of Africa 1498: Vasco Da Gama sailed around Africa into the Indian Ocean to India and brought back spices to Portugal. This event causes trade with Italy and the Mediterranean sea to decline.
Spain Columbus thought route west was shorter than it was and he could reach China by sailing west 1492 landed on island in Caribbean Sea Columbus died believing he found Asia
1497-1503: Amerigo Vespucci make voyages west and describes new world German mapmaker drew up new map after reading Vespucci’s info and name new area “America”
Portuguese Empire 1 st country to develop overseas empire West coast Africa East coast Africa Southwest coast India Island in Indonesia Ports in Japan and China
Portuguese Empire (Decline) Government not strong or well organized Every year sent strongest young men out as sailors and traders Intolerant views towards non-christians in their colonies (effect of Reconquista) 1580: Spain added Portugal to its land but did not help support the colonies they had created
Spanish Empire West Indies Mexico (Cortez conquers Aztecs for their gold using horses and guns) Peru (Pizarro conquers Incas for their silver and gold) Florida (De Soto) Central North America (Coronado) Established settlements in New World
Spanish Empire (Decline) Other countries attacked Spanish ships returning form the New World with riches (This caused a war between Spain and England which Spain lost.) Spanish nobles thought work was degrading (no innovations) Muslim Moors and Jews were driven out Spain had to send its riches to other countries who produced the good they needed.
England 1588: Phillip II of Spain used his Spanish Armada to attack England because they were attacking Spanish ships carrying riches 1600’s founded colonies along east coast of North America
Dutch (Netherlands) 1602: Dutch East India Trading Company created to trade with Africa and the West Indies 1626: bought Manhattan Island in New York from Indians for $24.
French 1535-1536: Cartier sails up the St. Lawrence River and claims most of eastern Canada, Great Lakes region, and inland along Mississippi River.
Russia North Western coast of North America
Effects of Exploration Increased use of money Banking: deposits, credit, loans Medici family in Florence gains wealth through banking Growth of capitalism where individual people make decisions based on supply and demand
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