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MICROBIOLOGY – ALCAMO Chapter 18 – Resistance and the Immune System.

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Presentation on theme: "MICROBIOLOGY – ALCAMO Chapter 18 – Resistance and the Immune System."— Presentation transcript:

1 MICROBIOLOGY – ALCAMO Chapter 18 – Resistance and the Immune System

2 Defense Mechanisms Specific Resistance –Come about in response to a particular parasite –Directed solely at that parasite Nonspecific Resistance –Exists in all humans –Present from the earliest time of life

3 Nonspecific Resistance Depends on the well-being of the individual and proper functioning of body systems Factors involved: –Nutrition –Fatigue –Age –Sex –Climate

4 Nonspecific Resistance Species Immunity – diseases affecting one species will not affect another This type of immunity is based on –Physiological differences –Anatomical differences –Biochemical differences Example – chickens are resistant to anthrax because their body temperature is higher than ours (45 0 C)

5 Nonspecific Resistance Behavioral Immunities – exist among various peoples of the world – way of life Example – India in 1700’s, people did not keep water in their houses, so mosquitoes couldn’t breed and spread malaria

6 Nonspecific Resistance Racial Immunities – reflect the evolution of resistant humans Example – people in Africa with sickle cell anemia do not get malaria because the parasite can not enter the distorted RBC’s

7 Mechanical Barriers Skin and mucous membranes that extend into our body cavities Disease is rare unless these barriers are penetrated But, skin is penetrated every day: –Cuts –Bug bites –Injections

8 Mechanical Barriers Associated defense chemicals: –Low pH – stomach and vaginal tract –Lytic enzymes (lysozyme) - in human tears and saliva – digest Gram + bacteria –Bile – from the gall bladder –Interferons – proteins produced by cells in response to viruses

9 Cellular Protection Theory of Phagocytosis – Metchnikoff (1884, Ukraine) Involves cells called phagocytes: –Chemical attraction (chemotaxis) occurs between the MO and the phagocyte –Phagocyte invaginates and pinches in to form a phagosome –Phagosome fuses with a lysosome that has digestive enzymes and acidic pH to digest MO –Waste materials are expelled

10 Cellular Protection Phagocytosis – Ameba-Like –Surround and digest MOs

11 Phagocytosis Video (1 minute) Dnatube video - phagocytosis

12 Inflammation

13 Nonspecific defensive response to tissue damage Can be due to an injury, blow to the skin, bee venom, UV radiation, MO’s Signs of inflammation: –Rubor – red coloration from blood –Calor – warmth from heat of blood –Tumor – swelling from fluids –Dolor – pain to the local nerves

14 Inflammation An irritant sets into motion a process that will limit the extent of the injury and repair tissue damage –Dilation of blood vessels – flow of plasma into the tissue and fluid accumulation –Phagocytes (neutrophils and macrophages) enter the injured area to attack the irritant –Pus accumulates and can form an abscess or boil

15 Pus = Dead WBC, MOs and Tissue Greatly stimulated by B & T Cells


17 Fever Abnormally high body temperature The brain’s hypothalamus region maintains a body temperature of about 98.6 0 C Exposure to “Pyrogens” resets the thermostat higher Fever inhibits the growth of certain MO’s

18 . Useful, Up to a point! Pathogens sensitive to heat, so are we Permanent Damage/Death 106/107 Treat to lower fever @ 102, call doctor Fever

19 Complement System 11 small blood (serum) proteins made in the liver Help antibodies and phagocytes to clear MO’s from an organism Attack anything with a cell membrane

20 Actions of Complement: –Weakens cell membranes –Attracts phagocytes –Stimulates Inflammation Stimulated by antibody/antigen activity Complement System

21 Natural Killer (NK) Cells Unique group of defensive cells that roam the body in blood and lymph Type of cytotoxic lymphocyte Kill cancer cells and virus-infected cells before the immune system is activated They kill cells by releasing small cytoplasmic granules of proteins that cause the target cell to die

22 Two Natural Killer Cells Attack a Cancer Cell

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