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Sarbanes-Oxley, Internal Control & Cash

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1 Sarbanes-Oxley, Internal Control & Cash
ACG 2021: Chapter 7

2 Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 This act is considered one of the most important and significant laws affecting publicly held companies in recent history. Publicly held companies –are those traded on public exchanges Purpose is to restore public confidence and trust in the financial statements of companies. Emphasizes the importance of internal control. Internal Control – as the procedures and processes used by a company to safeguard its assets, process information accurately, and ensure compliance with laws and regulations. Requires companies to maintain strong and effective internal controls over the recording of transactions and preparation of financial statements. To deter fraud and prevent misleading financial statements. Requires companies and their independent accountants to report on the effectiveness of the company’s internal controls

3 Sarbanes Oxley Caused by Enron Worldcom Tyco

4 Internal Controls are the policies and procedures that:
protect assets from misuse, ensure that business information is accurate, ensure that laws and regulations are being followed

5 Objectives of Internal Controls
Provides reasonable assurance that Assets are safeguarded and used for business purposes Business information is accurate Employees comply with laws and regulations

6 Elements Control environment Risk assessment Control procedures
Monitoring Information and communication

7 Control procedures Competent personnel Rotating duties
Mandatory vacations Separating responsibilities Separating operations Proof and security measures

8 Cash Controls over Receipts and Payments
Cash – includes coins, currency, checks, money orders, and money on deposit Businesses may have more than one cash account. Operating account Payroll account Savings account

9 Control of Cash Receipts
To protect cash from theft and misuse, a business must control cash from the time it is received until it is deposited in a bank. Two main sources of cash: Customers purchasing products or services Customers making payments on account

10 Cash Received from Cash Sales:
Regardless of the source of cash receipts, every business must properly safeguard and record its cash receipts. Cash registers help minimize risk Change fund – amount in each drawer at the beginning of a shift.

11 Cash in Register Cash register
Change fund: monies at the start of the shift At the end of the day, monies in the register may not equal what is should be Short – too little – an expense to the business Over – too much – revenue to the business

12 Recording of Difference
Cash short and over New account Classification depends on balance Short => Debit = expense Over => Credit = revenue

13 Cash Short and Over Example: Cash sales show $2,000 and cash in drawer is $2,005. Date Account PR Debit Credit Cash $2,005 Cash short and over 5 Sales 2,000

14 Cash short and Over Example 2:: Suppose that cash sales are $3,500 and cash in drawer is $3,400.

15 Cash short and Over Cash short & Over Debit Short Results in expense
Credit Over Results in revenue

16 Cash Control over Receipts
Cash Received by Mail: Lock box Cash controls Cash Received by EFT: EFT – electronic funds transfers Most companies encourage automatic electronic transfers by customers Term used in the auditor’s opinion of the internal control environment Less costly Enhance internal controls

17 Control of Cash Payments
Control of cash payments should provide reasonable assurance that payments are made for only authorized transactions. Voucher system Set of procedures for authorizing and recording liabilities to pay cash or issue an electronic funds transfer. Cash paid by EFT Payroll systems

18 Bank Accounts and Bank Reconciliation
Bank accounts are used for control purposes Reduces the amount of cash on hand at any one time Provide independent recording of cash transactions Facilitates the transfer of funds Terminology: Bank statement – a summary of transactions Credit – increase in bank balance ACH: automated clearing house entry for EFT MS – miscellaneous credit Debit – decrease in bank balance NSF – not sufficient funds check SC – service charge

19 Bank Reconciliation The reasons for the difference between the cash balance on the bank statement and the cash balance in the accounting records should be analyzed by preparing a bank reconciliation. It is an analysis of the items and amounts that cause the cash balance reported in the bank statement to differ from the balance of the cash account in the ledger in order to determine the adjusted cash balance.

20 Bank Reconciliation Steps in Bank Reconciliation:
Compare deposits on the bank statements with the ledger Compare checks on the bank statements with the ledger Add credit memo that have not been recorded to the balance according to the company’s records. Deduct debit memo that have not been recorded form the balance according to the company’s records. List any errors discovered during the preceding steps.

21 Bank’s records Company’s records
7-5 Bank’s records Company’s records Beginning balance $3,359.78 Beginning balance $2,549.99 Add deposit not recorded by bank Add note and interest collected by bank $4,175.98 $2,957.99 Deduct outstanding checks: No. 812 $1,061.00 No No ,544.99 Deduct check NSF $300.00 Bank service charges 18.00 Error recording Check No 327.00 Adjusted balance $2,630.99 Adjusted balance $2,630.99 51

22 7-5 Bank Reconciliation for Power Networking 52

23 7-5 Entry to Record Plus Items July 31 Cash 408 00
Entry to Record Plus Items 7-5 July 31 Cash Notes Receivable Interest Income 8 00 Note collected by bank. 55

24 7-5 Entry to Record Minus Items July 31 Cash 408 00
Entry to Record Minus Items 7-5 July 31 Cash Note collected by bank. Notes Receivable Interest Income 8 00 31 Accounts Receivable—Thomas Ivey Miscellaneous Expense Accounts Payable—Taylor Co Cash NSF check, bank service charges, and error in recording Check no. 879. 57

25 Example Deposit on July 31 not recorded on bank statement $816.20
Checks outstanding No 12 $1,061.00, No 8 $435.39, No 3 $48.60 Note plus interest of $8 collected by the bank $408.00 Check from customers return by bank because of insufficient funds $300.00 Bank service charge $18 Check No 23 recorded as $ when it was actually $ Bank balance on statement $ Book balance per general ledger $ Do a bank reconciliation and prepare entries.

26 Petty Cash Fund for small cash expenses Petty Cash is an asset account
Supplies Postage Food Parking Petty Cash is an asset account

27 Petty Cash Entries Establish the fund: Check written to petty cash for $500. Date Account PR Debit Credit Petty cash 500 Cash

28 Petty Cash Entries Reimburse the account
Example 1: Suppose that petty cash fund as the following receipts: office supplies $200, Miscellaneous $100, reimburse the account. Date Account PR Debit Credit Office supplies 200 Miscellaneous expense 100 Cash 300

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