Internal Control 4 What is internal control? 4 It is the organizational plan and all the related measures that an entity adopts to… – safeguard assets, – encourage adherence to company policies, – promote operational efficiency, and... – ensure accurate and reliable accounting records.
Operational Controls Financial Reporting Controls Internal Control
Tell how to achieve good internal control. Objective 2
Establishing an Effective System of Internal Control 4 Characteristics of an effective internal control system include: 1 Competent, reliable, and ethical personnel 2 Assignment of responsibilities 3 Proper authorization 4 Separation of duties
Separation of operations from accounting Separation of the custody of assets from accounting Separation of the authorization of transactions from the custody of related assets Separation of duties within the accounting function Separation of Duties
Stolen credit card numbers Computer virus and Trojan horses Impersonation of companies Internal Controls for e-Commerce
4 What is an encryption? 4 It is the primary method of achieving confidentiality in e-commerce. 4 Plain-text messages are rearranged by some mathematical process. 4 The encrypted message cannot be read by anyone who does not know the process.
Internal Controls for e-Commerce The Internet Corporate Intranet Firewall Network Computers
The Limitations of Internal Control 4 Most internal control measures can be circumvented or overcome. 4 Collusion is when two or more employees work as a team with the purpose to defraud the firm.
The Bank Account as a Control Device 4 Documents used to control a bank account include: – signature card – deposit ticket – check – bank statement – bank reconciliation
The Bank Reconciliation 4 What are two records of a business’s cash? 1 Cash account in the business’s own general ledger. 2 The bank statement which tells the actual amount of cash the business has in the bank.
The Bank Reconciliation 4 Items recorded by a company not on the bank statement: – deposit in transit – outstanding checks
The Bank Reconciliation 4 Items on a bank statement and not recorded by the business: – bank collections – bank fees – interest earned on account – NSF checks
The Paths That Two Checks Take (Good Check) aker writes check to payee. Payee deposits check in bank. Payee’s bank sends check to maker’s bank. Maker’s bank pays the check.
The Paths That Two Checks Take (NFS Check) Maker’s bank balance is not sufficient to pay the check. Maker’s bank sends the worthless check back to payee’s bank. Payee’s bank decreases payee’s balance. Payee holds worthless check.
Prepare a bank reconciliation and the related journal entries. Objective 3
The Bank Reconciliation Example 4 At the beginning of July, Sahita, Inc. received the June’s bank statement. 4 It indicated the following: 4 The bank balance was $63,275. 4 The bank had collected a note receivable from one of Sahita’s customers in the amount of $1,325.
The Bank Reconciliation Example 4 The bank paid the electric bill of $1,500. 4 There was a $200 check returned for NSF. 4 Interest earned on the account was $265. 4 Bank service charges were $12.
The Bank Reconciliation Example 4 Sahita’s books indicates a cash balance of $66,647. 4 A deposit of $11,250 was mailed to the bank on June 30. 4 Checks issued in June for $8,000 have not yet been paid by the bank.
Balance per bank, June 30$63,275 Add deposit in transit 11,250 $74,525 Less outstanding check 8,000 Adjusted bank balance$66,525 The Bank Reconciliation Example
Balance per books, June 30$66,647 Add: Note receivable collected by the bank 1,325 Interest income 265 $68,237 Less: Payment of electric bill 1,500 NSF check 200 Service charge 12 Adjusted book balance$ 66,525 The Bank Reconciliation Example
Balance per books $66,525 Balance per bank $66,525 Equal amounts
Record Reconciling Items June 30, 200x Cash 1,325 Notes Receivable 1,325 Notes collected by the bank June 30, 200x Cash 265 Interest Income 265 Interest earned on bank balance
Record Reconciling Items June 30, 200x Utilities Expense 1,500 Cash 1,500 Monthly electricity expense June 30, 200x Accounts Receivable – NSF 200 Cash 200 NSF check returned by bank
Record Reconciling Items June 30, 200x Bank Service Fees 12 Cash 12 Bank service charges
Apply internal controls to cash receipts. Objective 4
Cash Receipts Over the Counter 4 The terminal should be positioned so that customers can see the amount the cashier enters into the cash register. 4 The cash drawer should open only when the sales clerk enters an amount on the keypad. 4 The roll of tape locked inside the machine records each sale and cash transaction.
Cash Receipts Over the Counter 4 Pricing merchandise at “uneven” amounts means that the clerk has to open the cash drawer. 4 This requires entering the amount of the sale on the keypad and so onto the register tape.
Cash Receipts Over the Counter 4 At the end of the day, the cashier deposits the cash in the bank. 4 The tape goes to accounting.
Cash Receipts by Mail 4 All incoming mail should be opened by a mailroom employee. 4 This person should compare the check received with the remittance advice. 4 Cash receipts should be given to the cashier. 4 The mailroom employee forwards the remittance advice to accounting.
Cash Receipts by Mail 4 Many companies use a lock-box system. 4 Customers send their checks directly to an address that is a bank account. 4 Company personnel do not handle the cash.
Cash24,980 Cash Short and Over 20 Sales Revenue 25,000 Daily cash sales Cash Short and Over 4 Assume that the cash register tapes indicate sales revenue of $25,000. 4 However, the cash received was $24,980. 4 What entry would record the day’s sales?
Apply internal controls to cash payments. Objective 5
Control Over Approval of Payments Purchase Request Purchase Order Invoice Receiving Report Disbursement Packet
Control Over Approval of Payments 4 The accounting department... – combines all of these documents, – checks them for accuracy, and... – forwards this disbursement packet to designated officers for approval and payment.
Controlling Petty Cash Payments 4 On June 15, Sahita Inc. manager decided to establish a $250 petty cash fund. 4 What is the entry? June 15, 200x Petty Cash 250 Cash in Bank 250 To open the petty cash fund
Controlling Petty Cash Payments 4 Jose is the petty cash custodian responsible for the fund. 4 On June 20, he purchased supplies in the amount of $70. 4 For each disbursement, he prepares a petty cash ticket. 4 At all times the amount of cash in the petty cash fund plus the petty cash tickets must equal $250.
Controlling Petty Cash Payments 4 Jose also spent $20 for delivery charges and $60 for coffee and other miscellaneous expenses. 4 What is the journal entry to record the replenishment of the fund?
June 30, 20xx Supplies70 Delivery Expense20 Miscellaneous Expense60 Cash in Bank150 To replenish the petty cash fund Controlling Petty Cash Payments
Make ethical judgments in business. Objective 6
Ethics and Accounting Code of Conduct 88% Companies — 0.75 — 0.50 — 0.25 — 0.00
Professional Code of Ethics 4 Accountants are held to very high standards of conduct. 4 There is no compromising. 4 Would you hire an accountant who is “almost always” honest? 4 Internal controls rely upon basic honesty and integrity.