Presentation on theme: "The Conquest of Alexander the Great"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Conquest of Alexander the Great Chapter 6 Section 3The Conquest of Alexander the Great
2 Alexander the Great - Empire This map shows the vast empire conquered by Alexander the Great in red highlight. The extent of the empire is an approximation of 320 BC.
3 MacedoniaMacedon was a rising kingdom in the Macedonia region - North of Greece.- Macedonians were fighters- lived in villages, led by a local noble.Kings could only rule with the support of the noblesLocate Macedonia on the map
4 Philip II of Macedon Philip II of Macedon 359 B.C. became king Was a hostage in Thebes during his childhood, because of this came to admire Greek waysStudied organization of Thebes armyAs a result, recruited and organized the best- disciplined army in Macedonian history
5 Macedon ArmyOrganized infantry into phalanxes – phalanx: contained rows of soldiers standing shoulder to shoulder.- Carried heavy spears, 18 ft. long- Effective against cavalry charges
6 GOAL Goal – restore order to Macedon - Controlled several Athenian colonies.Next goal = heartland of Greece- Some Greeks supported Philip, others did not
7 DemosthenesDemosthenes: spoke out against Philip through a series of speechesTried to organize against Philip’s armyIn 338 B.C. Philip defeated Thebes and Athens at the battle of ChaeroneaWith this victory, Philip united Greece under his ruleOrganized cities into a league, planned to invade Persia336 B.C. Philip was assassinatedSon Alexander came to power
8 Alexander the Great: Military training from the Macedonian Army Formal education from AristotleGoal = conquer all of the civilized world
9 Alexander the GreatBy 331 B.C., BATTLE OF GAUGAMELA, crushed Persia, and conquered Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia (reference map)Went east as far as the Indus River. Wanted to conquer IndiaAlexander’s army did not want to proceed – refused to go and fight.In 326 turned back, headed west. ½ army traveled by sea, other ½ through the desert. Many of those that traveled through the desert died of exhaustion.Returning to Susa in 324By 323 many were discontent – why?Alexander caught a fever and died in June of 323 at the age of 32
10 Hellenistic World 13 years of fighting, Alexander rarely lost Purposely spread Greek culture wherever his armies went.Under Alexander’s leadership, Macedonians, Greeks, and Persians worked togetherSupported the marrying of Macedonians to Persians. Wanted to bring the Greeks and the Persians together.
11 The Spread of Hellenistic Culture: Greek culture spread to Nile valley, Southwest Asia, and borders of IndiaSociety contained a large group of poor people and a small group of rich people – in the middle, small middle-ranked groups. Spread of Greek culture helped the middle group to thrive during the Hellenistic Era
12 TRADEMajor cities – Alexandria, Egypt – commercial center, biggest Hellenistic cityTrade routes – linked China, India, ArabiaAlexander built cities, cities became learning centersLibrary at Alexandria – thousands of scrolls that contained information of the Hellenistic knowledge and literatureAs people prospered, education spreadRights of women – Hellenistic women appeared in public, property rightsMore of the world became “Greek”
13 Religion Hellenistic kingdoms – led Greek polis’ to decline Hellenistic Kings in Egypt and Asia = “ruler-worship” – people had a civic duty, found comfort in consulting authority figures for guidanceMystery religions – secret teachings, mysteries. Unity, security, personal worth
14 Philosophers: Concerned with ethics Cynicism, Skepticism, Stoicism, and EpicureanismCynics – live simply, naturally, no regard for wealth, pleasure, social statusSkeptics – universe always changing, all knowledge is uncertain – if you believe this = achieve peace of mind. Founder = PyrrhoStoic – established by Zeno, divine reason directs the world. Accept fate, influenced Roman and Christian thinkingEpicurean – founder= Epicurus, aim in life is to seek pleasure and avoid pain, limit pleasures = avoid suffering
15 Science Euclid = geometry Elements – basis for several geometry booksArchimedes = calculated the value of pi – the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.Invented the pulley, Archimedes screw – draws water upward
16 Medicine Alexandria, EGPYT = center of medical science Greeks learned embalming techniques from the Egyptians – examine and catalog parts of the bodyLearned the brain was the center for the nervous system
17 Astronomy and Geography Aristarchus – sun center of universeEratosthenes – calculated the distance around the earthHipparchus – predict eclipses
18 Hellenistic AgeGreek-like way of life became known as “Hellenistic Culture” – values and ideas drawn from Mediterranean and AsiaHellenistic Age – time between Alexander’s death and the Roman conquest of Greece.
19 After death… -Generals competed for empire -301 divided empire into three main kingdoms – Egypt, Macedon, and Syria, as well as several smaller kingdoms- Over time, Romans conquered most of the Hellenistic empire
20 Macedonia Most “greek-like” Weakest government Armies from Rome marched in and conquered Macedonia by mid 100’s B.C.
21 Syria Most of the Persian empire Many different people and customs – rebelled against leadersBy 60 B.C. Rome marched in and took over
22 Egypt Encouraged growth of Greek culture Ancient world’s largest library in the city of Alexandria
23 Concluding Q’s:Alexander the Great conquests and expansion of his Empire led to:A. The battle of ThermopylaeB. The Peloponnesian WarC. Spread of Hellenistic CultureD. Decline of Greek culture