Presentation on theme: "Throughout most of their classical history, the Greeks were never unified politically or militarily. They were simply a group of independent city-states."— Presentation transcript:
Throughout most of their classical history, the Greeks were never unified politically or militarily. They were simply a group of independent city-states that shared a common culture (religion, language, traditions.)
The Greeks fought each other more than they fought non-Greeks (who they referred to as barbarians; because their language sounded like sheep sounds). All this changed when a large eastern empire (the Persians) invaded the Greek world.
II. Persian Wars (500- 479 B.C.E.) Cause: Persia invasions Greece Battle of Marathon Battles of Thermopolae; & Salamis. Result: Greece won, but rivalry between the city-states caused the Peloponnesian Wars.
Persians: Largest army & navy in the world. Poorly armored (short spears, and wicker shields) Cultural differences leading to poor motivation. Long time to organize, & required a lot of supplies.
Greece’s victory over the Persians gave rise to the “Golden Age” of Greek culture. Achievements during the “Golden Age”: Democracy- Medicine Philosophy- Science Drama- History Poetry - Art III. The Golden Age:
Socrates is considered “The Father of Greek philosophy”
He believed that people needed to think for themselves by questioning everything. He argued that pure truth could never really be discovered. He often criticized democracy.
Plato A student of Socrates, who believed in rule by an aristocracy. Wrote “The Republic”
Aristotle A student of Plato & teacher to Alexander the Great. He explored the idea of good government (which governments make the best men.) He developed rules of logic (men are ruled by “natural laws”.)
Sophocles; was a Greek dramatist who wrote tragedies such as “Oedipus Rex” & “Antigone”
Hippocrates was a Greek medical scholar who looked for natural rather than supernatural causes of illnesses.
Aristarchus: Greek astronomer who believed in the Heliocentric theory (the sun is the center of the solar system.) His theory was opposed by Claudius Ptolemy who taught that the earth is the center of the solar system (Geocentric).
Erastosthenes: Greek astronomer who calculated the circumference of the earth with amazing accuracy by measuring angles of the sun. This information was “forgotten” until Columbus’ incorrect estimation in1492.
Archimedes Greek physicist who studied pulleys and levers. He developed theories of power & force.
Aristotle Greek philosopher that collected, described, and classified plants & animals. This was the foundations of western botany, zoology & anatomy.
Pythagoras Greek mathematician who developed the Pythagorean theorem.
Characteristics of Greek Art Glorified Human beings Represented the City-state Represented the Greek Ideas of beauty and usefulness
IV. Pelonponnesian Wars (431-404 BCE) Cause: Rivalry between Greek city- states after the Persian Wars. Result: Weakened city-states; thus facilitated the invasion of the Macedonians lead by (Phillip II and Alexander the Great)
To protect the Aegean from further Persian threat, Athens formed a military alliance called the Delian League. Out of fear of an Athenian Empire, Sparta also formed a military alliance called the Peloponnesian League.
It wasn’t long until the Greeks forgot the unity they had enjoyed against the Persians and began to fight each other again. In 431 B.C.E. the two Leagues went to war.
The war lasted until 404 B.C.E. with the surrender of Athens to Sparta. But the war left all of Greece weakened and vulnerable to outside attack.
V. Rise of Macedonia: Known as the Hellenistic Age (379 – 144 B.C.E.) Lasted from the Fall of Greece to the Rise of Rome
Greece was finally conquered in 379 B.C.E. by the Macedonians. Under the leadership of Philip and His son Alexander. Philip of -----------Macedonia Alexander of Macedonia ----------
Philip of Macedonia Macedonia was the northern part of Greece. It was a buffer zone between the Greek world and the barbarians. The Macedonians admired Greek culture; but most Greeks saw them as hillbillies/rednecks. In his desire to be more Greek King Philip conquered the Greeks after the Peloponnesian War.
Alexander the Great He promised the Greeks in return for their alliance, he would conquer Persia. His empire stretched from Greece to the Indus River His civilization was a mix of Greek and Eastern elements called the Hellenistic Culture.